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“But if we died with Christ, we believe that we shall also live with him… For the death that he died, he died unto sin once: but the life that he liveth, he liveth unto God.” The antithesis in the Epistle of Paul to the Romans enjoyed great popularity in medieval literature, specifically amongst monastic authors. Dezső Pais and János Bollók observed a striking parallel between the biblical passage and the conclusion of the Gesta Hungarorum. János Győry explained the resemblance with the literary impact of the 12th-century Gesta consulum Andegavorum on the anonymous author of the Gesta Hungarorum. On the other hand, the quotation could have been borrowed from a letter by Paulinus of Nola. Another source from early medieval Hungary, the arenga of the charter of hermit Andreas (1130-1140) contains a paraphrased version of the passage, now openly articulating monastic ideals: Ut mortuus seculo, solus soli viveret Deo. The same wording was preserved in a homily for the feast of Saint Blaise attributed to abbot Gottfried of Admont (dG1165) and an antiphon which represents a liturgical tradition originating in Rheinau. Considering the 12th-century political relationship between Admont and Hungary, it is very likely that the charter of Andreas testifies about the impact of the Admont school on Hungarian monasteries.

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I Preliminary: corpus, charter structure, methodology The definite articles of the Romance languages emerged from demonstratives in the 8th century. 1 This process can be described as a competition between ille and ipse. There are regions where

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can primarily rely on Latin charters that also include vulgar (Hungarian) language elements (mostly toponyms and personal names). These charters make up the first remnants of Hungarian written culture using Latin script. They include founding charters

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Principles and the Charter defining the “Scope of Union Law” ’ ( 2015 ) 52 Common Market Law Review 1201 – 1246 . Fontanelli , F. , Hic Sunt Nationes: The Elusive Limits of the

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expectation in the arbitral practice: green energy cases under the Energy Charter Treaty The research embraced all the accessible green energy cases under the Energy Charter Treaty; however, due to limited space, only the most important cases are

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://mi.btk.mta.hu/hu/ars-hungarica) Gulyás 2013b Gulyás , Borbála : Bocskay György kalligráfus oklevelei a Habsburg házassági diplomácia szolgálatában [The calligraphic charters produced by

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1 Introduction 1 The United Nations (UN) Security Council (SC) holds the responsibility of upholding international peace and security. 2 According to the Charter of United Nations (UN Charter), the SC can play a significant role in resolving

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Enea Silvio Piccolomini in his work entitled De Europa written in 1458, tells an interesting story defined as a legend in terms of genre about a duke called Ingo, who lived during the reign of Charlemagne. This narrative claims that in 790 dux gentis Ingo held a feast for the inhabitants of his province where food was served to the peasants allowed to appear before him in golden and silver bowls, while to the dignitaries standing further away from him in bowls made of clay. The researchers’ attention is deservedly raised by the query how come that this parabolical story with biblical tone was included in Enea Silvio’s work; if it had been borrowed who the auctor might have been he borrowed it from. The answer seems to be very simple: from the Conversio Bagoariorum et Carantanorum drafted regarding the lawsuit proceeded against Methodius. In the case narrated in the Conversio Ingo sent a charter or much rather a parchment without any writing, or letters on it (carta sine litteris) , which provided his legate with sufficient authenticity to demand obedience from the people.In this study-after having compared the two narratives and outlined the place of De Europa in Enea Silvio Piccolomini’s oeuvre and the circumstances of the drafting and tendencies of the Conversio Bagoariorum et Carantanorum-the author attempts to answer the following questions. To what extent can duke Ingo, mentioned by Enea Silvio and not questioned in the literature for long centuries, be considered a real historical person? Does the Conversio refer to Ingo as a duke, and if it does, what is his existence as a duke and introduction in the literature as a duke owing to? What could the meaning of carta sine litteris referred to in Conversio have been, and why did Enea Silvio not take this item over although he could have put it forward as a further proof of Ingo’s dignity? To what literary prefigurations can the description of the feast held by Ingo be traced back to, and what role did it play in the Conversio? Regarding the borrowing of the Ingo story by Enea Silvio, what possible intermediary writing and author can be reckoned with?

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Abstract:

This paper intends to investigate the development of the periphrastic form for the dative and genitive in the Merovingian charters. The periphrastic forms are reserved in Classical Latin to some special uses: the indirect object after a verb that has the prefix ad- and the partitive function of the genitive they replace. These forms extend to new uses in the Late Latin and are the new majoritarian form for the indirect object, but remain a minoritarian variant for the functions of the classical genitive. The genitival functions adapt to new forms of expression: the periphrastic form and a fixed position in the sentence immediately after the noun, its complete. This paper tries to show and to corroborate by means of statistics and chosen examples of the 7th and 8th centuries the development of these forms, which were still rare in the classical period.

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The probabilistic estimation of the magnitude of historical earthquakes requires the analysis of actual building structures affected by those earthquakes. The analysis complicates because most of these buildings no longer exist or were greatly modified, present a great variety of features and the number of analysis for probabilistic assessment is high. As it is not practical to analyze all structures, an alternative is to use structural archetypes representing the affected buildings. This paper presents an approach to develop a quantitative framework for the generation of historical archetypes. The method is illustrated via the definition of a specific archetype for the study and assessment of the effects of the 1763 Komárom earthquake. The historical survey of Tata, Hungary, is assumed as representative of the region and one historical building is utilized to illustrate the archetypes evaluation process.

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