Authors:Ali Reza Kamali, Derek J. Fray, and Carsten Schwandt
Lithium chloride, LiCl, is an important ionic compound that finds use in a variety of industrial applications. Most prominently, LiCl is the feed material in the electrolytic production of lithium metal [ 1
Authors:Rabia Nazir, Muhammad Mazhar, Tehmina Wakeel, Muhammad J. Akhtar, Muhammad Siddique, Muhammad Nadeem, Nawazish A. Khan, and Muhammad R. Shah
formulas: M(bipy) 2 Cl 2 , M 3 (bipy) 4 Cl 6 , Ni(bipy)Cl 2 , isomeric Co(bipy)Cl 2 , Co(bipy) 0.80 Cl 2 , and M(bipy) 0.50 Cl 2 but failed to get the Ni(bipy) 1.50 Br 2 analog of chloride [ 16 ] as was earlier reported by Dhar and Baslao [ 17 ] for
Authors:Vadim V. Krongauz, Yann-Per Lee, and Anthony Bourassa
Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) is used in construction, medical devices, electrical insulation, rain gear, upholstery, and other products. The degradation mechanism of PVC and other halogenated polymers exposed to high
Authors:M. K. Sangeetha, M. Mariappan, G. Madhurambal, and S. C. Mojumdar
authors have used these techniques for various materials characterization [ 19 – 39 ]. The present investigation deals with the growth of l -valine nickel chloride (LVNiC) an analog of l -valine single crystal by slow solvent evaporation technique. The
The poly-vinyl-chloride (PVC) is a widely used commodity polymer because of its excellent properties; such as high stiffness, good transparency, low flammability and favourable price. PVC is recyclable, but
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)/organic-montmorillonite composites were prepared by melt intercalation. Their structures and properties
were investigated with X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and mechanical testing. The results
showed that PVC chains could be intercalated into the gallery of organically modified montmorillonite to form exfoliated PVC/organic-montmorillonite
nanocomposites, and the glass transition temperatures of PVC/organic-montmorillonite composites were lower than that of neat
PVC. However, the tensile strength, and both the Izod type and Charpy notched impact strengths of PVC/organic-montmorillonite
nanocomposites were fitted with the linear expressions: t=535.07-6.39Tg, sI=378.76-4.59Tg and sC=276.29-3.59Tg, respectively.
The phase diagrams of ACl/MoCl3 (A=Na, K, Rb, Cs) were elucidated by DTA measurements in sealed quartz ampoules in the range of 0–40 mol% MoCl3. The samples were prepared from alkali metal chlorides and the compounds A3MoCl6 or A3Mo2Cl9. The 3∶1 compounds withA=Na, Rb, Cs were obtained by sintering mixtures of 3ACl+MoCl3; the enneachlorides A3Mo2Cl9 withA=K, Rb, Cs were precipitated from solutions of MoCl3·3H2O and ACl in formic acid. Congruently melting compounds A3MoCl6 exist in all four systems, incongruently melting enneachlorides A3Mo2Cl9 in systems withA=K, Rb, Cs. Still unknown structures were determined by analog-indexing powder patterns according to known structure families.
Especially Cs3MoCl6 is isotypic with the recently found Cs3CrCl6 structure. Additionally, the unit cell parameters were determined for the compounds A3MoCl5·H2O (A=K, Rb, Cs) analogous to Cs2TiCl5·H2O, whose structure was determined by single crystal measurements.
The thermal degradation of a sort of polyvinyl chloride was investigated. Complex processes for polyvinyl chloride degradation
were evidenced. The kinetic analysis of dehydrochlorination and of subsequent processes was carried out. A change of mechanism
was detected when dehydrochlorination goes to completion. The values of non-isothermal kinetic parameters determined by various
methods are in a satisfactory agreement. The obtained results allowed some clarifications concerning the thermal degradation
The extraction of pertechnetate in form of ionogene associates with triphenyltin and trioctyltin cations into chloroform,
benzene, toluene and nitrobenzene was studied. As aqucous phases solutions of99mTcO
in deionized water and in diluted solutions of NaCl, HCl, NaNO3, HNO3 NaClO4, HClO4 and NaOH were used. Concerning the organic phases, at the use of triphenyltin chloride the extractibility of pertechnetate
increases in the sequence: toluene «chloroform, benzene nitrobenzene and approximately in the sequence: NaOH<NaCl, HCl<NaNO3<H2O<NaClO4 concerning aqueous phases. For trioctyltin chloride in chloroform the extractibility of TcO
increases approximately in the sequence of aqueous phases: NaOH<HCl, NaNO3, NaClO4, NaCl«H2O and in nitobenzene in the sequence NaOH<NaClO4<HCl<NaNO3, NaCl«H2O. The extractibility for trioctyltin chloride is in general slightly lower as compared with triphenyltin chloride. The results
of the extraction are presented in the form of graphical plots of technetium distribution ratio (DTe′ logDTc) or extraction yield (ETc, %) against concentration of the investigated component in aqueous or organic phase. In some of the systems of the systems
studied practically quantitative extraction of pertechnetate into organic phase has been achieved.
The preparation of radiopharmaceuticals using stannous chloride has acquired an ever increasing importance. The applicability
to a great number of compounds constitutes the basis of interest. The possibility of preparing kits has added to the desirable
properties. The stannous ion is a powerful reducing agent, it posseses the quality of coprecipitating with numerous elements
and favours the formation of many complexes of relatively low toxicity. The present outline is a panoramic appreciation of
the radiopharmaceuticals prepared with the aid of stannous chloride, some brief considerations on quality control have found
their way into this exposition.