The development of American medical education before the Civil War was studied. One hundred and forty-three first professors in American medical schools before the Civil War were selected, and records of their academic origins, places of birth, and study abroad were collected from various biographical sources. Based on the prosopographical analysis of personal data of first professors, the historical changes and the characteristics in American medical education are discussed.
The aim of this study was to assess the influence of civil war during recent disintegration of the former Yugoslavia on scientific
output, as measured by changes in numbers of articles published in peer-reviewed journals. The articles published in journals
indexed in the Science Citation Index (SCI) were retrieved for the former Yugoslav republics. According to the census of 1991, the republics" populations were
as follows: Serbia 9.7 million inhabitants, Croatia 4.7, Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) 4.3, Macedonia 2.0, Slovenia 1.9, and
Montenegro 0.6. The annual numbers of articles from each were determined from 1988 to 2000. This period includes three prewar
years, 5 years of civil war from 1991 to 1995, and the NATO military interventions in B&H (1995) and F.R. Yugoslavia (1999),
which includes Serbia and Montenegro. In the late 1980s, Serbia produced more than 900 scientific articles per year and was
well ahead, with twice as many publications as Slovenia. The number of publications from Croatia fell between that of Serbia
and Slovenia. In the prewar period, the remaining republics had a relatively small scientific presence. The outputs from B&H
decreased, from 50 articles in 1991, sharply during the war and continued to decrease. During the postwar period only 18 to
27 papers per year were published. In 1995, the output from Serbia dropped 33% in comparison to 1991. Slovenia produced more
publications that year while Croatia was stagnant, and 3 most productive states had a similar output. In 1998, Serbia produced
1543 publications, Slovenia 1116, Croatia 1103, Macedonia 100, B&H 25, and Montenegro 12. The number of articles from Serbia
dropped in 1999 and 2000 for 10.2% and 27.9%, respectively, in comparison to 1998. For the same two years, the number of publications
was increased in Croatia (37.3% and 12,5%), Slovenia (10.9% and 52.8%), Macedonia (5% and 6%) and Montenegro (75% and 66%).
The concentration of scientific research in well-established universities caused an uneven distribution of scientific output
among various republics. Thus, the annual output of scientific papers per 100,000 inhabitants in 1990 greatly varied in various
republics. In Montenegro it was 1.79, B&H 1.95, Macedonia 2,36, Serbia 11.92, Croatia 18.40 and Slovenia 29.63. In 2000, the
annual output per 100,000 inhabitants in these republics was 3.41, 0.61, 5.24, 11,34, 26.00 and 76.84, respectively. The scientific
production in B&H and in Serbia was affected not only by the devastated economy, damaged communications, and hardship of everyday
life during the war and postwar years, but because many scientists left the country, and the scientists in Serbia were isolated
from the international scientific community.
Authors:Miloš Jovanović, Marcus John, and Stefan Reschke
In this study we investigate the scientific output of Yugoslavia and its successor republics viz. Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia,
Bosnia & Herzegovina, Macedonia and Montenegro. Additionally, Kosovo was included as a separate entity, since it recently
declared its independence. The publications and cooperation between the republics are analyzed for the years from 1970 until
2007. In contrast to similar studies, we examine a larger time window and take into consideration not only the three big republics
(Serbia, Croatia, and Slovenia) but also include the smaller ones, namely Bosnia & Herzegovina, Macedonia and Montenegro.
For our analysis we introduce two new indicators: the normalized cooperation score (
), a measure of dominance within a weighted network. Furthermore, we develop and assess the reliability of various techniques
for visualizing our findings. We found that the civil wars had a severe impact on the inner-Yugoslav cooperation network.
Additionally it seems, as if with the ending of the conflicts a process of recovery started.
The author analyses two volumes of verse of Catherine Acholonu, a contemporary Nigerian poet: Nigeria in the Year 1999 and The Spring's Last Drop from two aspects.
The first main aspect of the poems she examines is the feeling of exile, being outcast from the homeland. "The texts diagnose
some of Nigeria's current socioeconomic and political problems which can apply to the experience of other Africans as well."
The second part of her analysis highlights violences suffered by women in the war and in the social life. The author discusses
the situation of being a woman under double oppression. The conclusion is: "Acholonu clarifies the nature of the disharmony
hurting contemporary society."
Drawing on established connections between Roman identity and an agricultural landscape, this paper examines how the imagery of disrupted pastoral and agrarian landscapes and characters represent the effects of civil war on the Roman people in Vergil’s Aeneid and Lucan’s Bellum Civile. While disturbance and turmoil are already a part of the natural landscape in Vergil’s Eclogues and Georgics, in epic, a genre that concerns itself with how empire and imperial power mediate Roman identity, the displacement of shepherds and agriculture partially redefines Roman identity in militaristic terms. Vergil’s pastoral characters, written into military roles as civic landscapes displace agrarian ones in the Aeneid, survive but fail to find a place in Lucan’s ruined and desolate Pharsalian landscape in the Bellum Civile. There, the broken natural landscape, unfit for agriculture, pastoralism, or trade, mirrors the redefinition of what is “Roman” and the occlusion of Rome’s link to an idealized bucolic past.
The paper focuses on the bee-simile (9. 283–293) and its application to Cato. Via a detailed analysis of the motif, the passage, and the context as well as the inter- and intratextual aspects of Lucan’s Bildsprache (especially with respect to Vergil’s Georgics) the author discusses how the Lucanean Cato can be understood and how he may be assessed with regard to an interpretation of the narrative as a whole. The elaborate simile not only gives a frightening insight into the figure’s character, but also, by evoking the similes previously used for Pompey, it inevitably draws the characters into relation with each other. The famous, but perhaps simplistic idea that Cato, the perfect stoic and republican, is the real ‘hero’of the poem, is challenged.
This essay is based on Ken Saro-Wiwa’s novel, titled Sozaboy. Apart from using this novel to interpret and locate the history and politics of Nigeria within a particular period, the essay
tried to look at the 1967–1970 Nigeria’s civil war as fictionalized by Ken Saro-Wiwa, the nature of the language and implications
on the English language in Nigeria. It also attempted an understanding of the moral and political consequences of war on humanity
in general and the special effect of the Nigerian civil war on the minority areas within the Biafran enclave in particular
as epitomized by Dukana, the setting of Sozaboy. The essay concluded that the novel itself was a bold attempt at experimentation
with language, considering the fact that it was written in what the author himself described as “rotten” English.
Scientific outputs from Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia, and the patterns of co-authorship between them and five western countries
and with each other have been determined from theScience Citation Index. They reflect accurately the political situation underlying the recent break-up of the former Yugoslavia, and long-term international
alliances and friendships, but also take account of geographical proximity, which assists scientific co-operation. There is
no evidence of changes in the ethnic composition of Serbian and Croatian scientists overall, as revealed by the names of their
researchers before and after the civil war. However some changes appear to have taken place in Serbia outwith Belgrade, which
are consistent with the reports of the expulsion of Croats living in Vojvodina.
We find three definitions of the saeculum in the Roman world. The Etruscan Century is based on the lives of the human beings and of the different cities in Etruria. We find an echo of these theories in the Roman divination There are two definitions of the century in Rome, a century of 100 and a century of 110 years. This theory, elaborated by the Quindecemviri sacris faciundis and Ateius Capito, has been taken into consideration to celebrate the Secular Games in 17 AD. In fact, the reign of Augustus has been considered as the return of the Golden Age in Italy and in the Roman world, with the end of the civil wars. In Vergil’s poetry, we find a historical conception of the Hesiodic Golden Age. Announced in the fourth Eclogue, the Golden age is localized in the Latium (Georgica) under the power of Augustus (Aeneid).
Previous research may have failed to find a general relationship between war and techno-scientific activity due to the failure (a) to treat the various types of war separately and (b) to use yearly rather than generational time series. Hence, the present study examined 404 consecutive years in European civilization from 1500 to 1903. Measures of four distinct kinds of war were defined and a log-transformed measure of techno-scientific activity was derived from a factor analysis of six histories and chronologies. The techno-science measure was regressed on the war measures plus a set of control variables. Techno-scientific activity was found to be a negative function of balance-of-power and defensive wars fought within Europe. In contrast, imperial and civil wars exerted no influence.