Authors:Mária Papp, Anikó Farkas, Miklós Udvardy and István Tornai
Grange, J. D., Amiot, X., Grange, V. és mtsai:
Amoxicillin-clavulanicacid therapy of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a prospective study of twenty-seven cases in cirrhotic patients. Hepatology, 1990,
Authors:Osman Tel, Özkan Aslantaş, Oktay Keskin, Ebru Yilmaz and Cemil Demir
In this study, Staphylococcus aureus strains (n = 110) isolated from seven ewe flocks in Sanliurfa, Turkey were screened for antibiotic resistance and biofilmforming ability as well as for genes associated with antibiotic resistance and biofilm-forming ability. All isolates were found to be susceptible to oxacillin, gentamicin, clindamycin, cefoxitin, tetracycline, vancomycin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin and sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim. The percent proportions of strains resistant to penicillin G, ampicillin and erythromycin were 27.2% (n = 30), 25.4% (n = 28) and 6.3% (n = 7), respectively. Regarding the antibiotic resistance genes, 32 (29%) isolates carried the blaZ and 8 (7.2%) the ermC gene. Other resistance genes were not detected in the isolates. All isolates showed biofilm-forming ability on Congo red agar (CRA), while 108 (98.18%) and 101 (91.81%) of them were identified as biofilm producers by the use of standard tube (ST) and microplate (MP) methods, respectively. All isolates carried the icaA and icaD genes but none of them harboured the bap gene. The results demonstrated that S. aureus isolates from gangrenous mastitis were mainly resistant to penicillins (which are susceptible to the staphylococcal beta-lactamase enzyme), and less frequently to erythromycin. Furthermore, all of the S. aureus isolates produced biofilm which was considered a potential virulence factor in the pathogenesis of staphylococcal mastitis.
Authors:Zaklina Cekovska, Nikola Panovski, Milena Petrovska, Katalin Kristóf and F. Rozgonyi
The distribution of 3497 Staphylococcus aureus strains according to methicillin resistance, specimens, departmental profession and antibiotic resistance patterns was analysed. The strains were cultured from the patients of the Clinical Center of Skopje, Macedonia, between 1 January 2002 and 31 December 2004. The majority of the isolates was obtained from suppurated wounds (28.5%), nares (21%), intratracheal tubes (13%) and blood cultures (11.8%). Overall 1100 (31.4%) of the isolates was methicillin-resistant with 1 µg oxacillin disc. Of these 35.5%, 30.5% and 10.4% were cultured from wounds, intratracheal tubes and blood samples, respectively. The prevalence of MRSA strains was 78.6%, 75%, 44.2% and 37.3% in specimens of ICU, Coma Center, General Surgery and Haematology patients. There were extremely big differences in the frequency of MRSA between departments with particular specialisation. The 2397 MSSA isolates belonged to practically one antibiotic resistance pattern characterised with penicillin resistance and susceptibility to other antistaphylococcal drugs. The 1100 MRSA isolates distributed to four antibiotic resistance patterns on the basis of their resistance to oxacillin, penicillin, amoxicillin+clavulanic acid, azithromycin, clindamycin, amikacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim+sulphamethoxasole, vancomycin and teicoplanin. All the MRSA isolates were multidrug resistant but sensitive to glycopeptides.
Authors:Mustafa Gul, Ekrem Dogan, Ekrem Kirecci, Hasan Ucmak, Ebubekir Dirican and Abdullah Karadag
Serratia ficaria was first described in 1979 as a Gram-negative facultative anaerobic rod. S. ficaria was found in figs, but also isolated from human specimens in a few cases. We now report an isolate of S. ficaria from sputum specimen.A 46-year-old man was suffering from a chronic renal failure of five years, four months of peritoneal dialysis and one week of fever due to respiratory tract infection, accompanied by cough. Sputum culture yielded a Gram-negative rod. It was identified as S. ficaria and the antibiotic susceptibility test was performed by automated Vitek II (bioMerieux). The tested S. ficaria strain was susceptible to amikacin, gentamicin, cefepime, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, imipenem, meropenem, tigecycline and ciprofloxacin. This strain was resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalothin, cefoxitine, cefuroxime and ceftriaxone. The patient was treated successfully (80 mg trimethoprim/400 mg sulfamethoxazole twice daily for 7 days)S. ficaria is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for intestinal colonization or serious infections such as septicaemia, gall bladder empyema in immunocompromised patients. The fig tree and fig play an important role in human colonization. It should be remembered that S. ficaria infections may be encountered frequently especially in fig tree culture zones.
Authors:Ali Konaté, René Dembélé, Nathalie K. Guessennd, Fernique Konan Kouadio, Innocent Kouamé Kouadio, Mohamed Baguy Ouattara, Wendpoulomdé A. D. Kaboré, Assèta Kagambèga, Haoua Cissé, Hadiza Bawa Ibrahim, Touwendsida Serge Bagré, Alfred S. Traoré and Nicolas Barro
The emergence and persistence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) causing acute diarrhea is a major public health challenge in developing countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance phenotypes of DEC isolated from stool samples collected from children less than 5 years of age with acute diarrhea living in Ouagadougou/Burkina Faso. From August 2013 to October 2015, this study was carried out on 31 DEC strains of our study conducted in “Centre Médical avec Antenne Chirurgicale (CMA)” Paul VI and CMA of Schiphra. DEC were isolated and identified by standard microbiological methods and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was used to further characterize them. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done based on the disk diffusion method. DEC isolates were high resistant to tetracycline (83.9%), amoxicillin (77.4%), amoxicillin clavulanic acid (77.4%), piperacillin (64.5%), and colistin sulfate (61.3%). The most resistant phenotype represented was the extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype (67.7%). Aminoglycosides were 100% active on enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). All the DEC isolates exhibited absolute (100%) sensitivity to ciprofloxacin. Monitoring and studying the resistance profile of DEC to antibiotics are necessary to guide probabilistic antibiotic therapy, especially in pediatric patients.
Authors:Éva J. Kaszanyitzky, Zsuzsanna Egyed, Sz. Jánosi, Judit Keserű, Zsuzsanna Gál, I. Szabó, Zoltán Veres and P. Somogyi
The antibiotic resistance pattern of 1921 Staphylococcus strains isolated from animals and food within the last two years were examined using diffusion tests. Among them there were only 35 strains of S. aureus having an inhibition zone diameter of 15 mm or less, and 4 strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) having a zone diameter of 18 mm or less to 1-µg oxacillin disk. These 39 strains were examined also by E-test to oxacillin and for the detection of the mecA gene by PCR in order to determine whether they might be real methicillin-resistant staphylococci. Among the 39 strains there were only two that were susceptible to penicillin by disk diffusion method; however, further examination by the penicillinase test showed that they produced ß-lactamase. While 19 (15 S. aureus, 4 CNS) strains were resistant and 7 strains were intermediate to oxacillin in disk diffusion test, the E-test gave 8 resistant and 5 intermediate results. Six out of the 8 oxacillin-resistant strains examined by disk diffusion and E-test harboured the mecA gene. Thus only 6 out of the examined 1921 strains proved to be mecA positive. These methicillin-resistant, mecA-positive strains (5 of the S. aureus strains and 1 of the S. epidermidis) originated from two dairy herds. The results prove that methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains in animals are really rare in Hungary. Eighteen strains were chosen and screened for minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of oxacillin with or without clavulanic acid or sulbactam, and three of them produced methicillinase enzyme.
Diabéteszes betegekben a húgyúti infekciók gyakoribbak, illetve súlyosabb kórlefolyás várható. A különbség nőkben kifejezettebb mind a szimptómás infekciók, mind az aszimptomatikus bacteriuria vonatkozásában. A kórokozó spektrum nem tér el lényegesen a nem diabéteszes betegekben észlelt kórokozó-megoszlástól. Cystitisek esetében – vizsgálatok hiányában – nem különböznek a kezelési elvek a nem diabéteszes betegek kezelése során alkalmazottól, de a veseparenchyma gyakori érintettsége miatt célszerűnek látszik a biztosan hatékony antibiotikum választása empirikus terápiára. A pyelonephritis többnyire kezdeti parenteralis kezelést, a szövődmények lehetősége miatt szoros obszervációt, és így az esetek többségében hospitalizációt igényel. Az
emelkedő antibiotikum-rezisztenciája miatt a doxycyclin, a sulfamethoxazol empirikus terápiára diabéteszes betegek húgyúti infekcióinak kezelésére nem javasolt, súlyosabb kórformákban az amoxycillin/klavulánsav, illetve a fluorokinolonok alkalmazása is megkérdőjelezhető. Jelenleg még az ambuláns gyakorlatban elérhető antibiotikumok közül a 3. generációs cephalosporinok a leghatékonyabbak. A diabéteszes betegek szűrése aszimptomatikus bacteriuriára nem javasolt, az alkalmazott antibiotikum-kezelés a későbbi szimptómás epizódokat nem védi ki.