A binary combination of the synthetic floral compounds (E)-anethol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde has been optimized as a female-targeted lure for adults of the click beetle, Agriotes ustulatus Schwarz (Coleoptera, Elateridae). This bait when placed in traps attracted significant numbers of beetles and a high percentage of the captured specimens was female. Painting the trap in white (a colour to which attraction of A. ustulatus was reported in the literature) had no significant effect on the performance of the floral attractant. To our knowledge this is the first synthetic attractant discovered for female click beetles. Application perspectives for female-targeted lures is shortly discussed.
.— Ismailov V.— Pristavko V.: 1993. Structure-activity relationship of synthetics pheromone components in sex communication of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Journal of Chemical Ecology 19,8: 1597–1606 pp
The continuous-flow synthesis of a series of 11- to 26-membered macrocycles via copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition is reported. The approach employs homogeneous catalysis to promote formation of triazole-containing macrocycles in good to excellent yields (65–90%) at relatively high concentration (30–50 mM) using a phase separation strategy.
The free nature of the Internet is said to have been lost to business interest. The author contests this claim by showing that the overall non-profit character of the net may have been limited but certainly not yet compromised. The best stuff on the Web is still available but hidden behind error messages, unlisted databases, and little-known links. Most of cyberspace is still open for educated research, and serendipity. Valuable content may remain free as long as the emerging online business communication keeps on offering us an attractive compromise in matters of our time-use while on the net. This is a tacit give and take but the outcome belongs to the core drivers of the new economy. Online marketing and commerce proceed on a market of clicks not just users mouse clicks but also the clicks of third party meters counting time; adding up to statistical profiles; and measuring user behaviour. Advertising can help cyberspace remain toll free by compromising netizens time but offering something in return for using their personally identifiable data in business operations. I will track these innovations to the extent of understanding them and will give an evaluation from the perspective of how force-fed or interruptive they are. There are intriguing new initiatives to render commercials less aggressive and more relevant, more predicated on permission and even more dependent on bandwidth. These targeting initiatives promise the demise of the mass culture of advertising as we know it, helping commercial messages evolve into personalised and customised individual knowledge management for opting-in netizens. This endeavour is part of a wider project to understand further the phenomena of the emerging „Gratis Economy”. In this study, I will focus on marketing solutions where freeware is part of a wider revenue model or product selling strategy mix.
Repetitive acoustic stimuli elicit steady-state response (SSR) in the gamma-band both in humans and in mammals. Our aim was to investigate changes of the spontaneous gamma activity and the SSR in the auditory cortex of cats in the background of an instrumental conditioning situation. Epidural electrodes were chronically implanted above the auditory neocortex. The presentation rate of the clicks varied between 20 and 65/s. Spontaneous EEG and SSR were collected in three behavioral states: in an indifferent environment, in the instrumental cage while the cat was waiting for the light CS, and when she stepped on the pedal and was waiting for the meat reward. Using different repetition rate clicks we determined which stimulus rate elicited the largest SSR in these three situations. In quiet animal the highest SSR appeared at 28-30/s. Before and during the CS the optimal stimulus rate shifted to 32-38/s. The frequency of the spontaneous gamma activity changed in parallel way depending on the situation. We conclude that both the SSR and the spontaneous gamma activity reflect resonant activity of the same neuronal circuit of the auditory cortex, and it is modulated by the motivational state of the animal.
This study reports the synthesis, radiolabeling and preliminary biodistribution results of [99mTc(CO)3(MN-TZ-BPA)]+ in tumor-bearing mice. The novel nitroimidazole derivative was successfully synthesized by conjugation of bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amine
(BPA) to 2-methyl-5-niroimidazole via “click” reaction. The ligand could be labeled by [99mTc(CO)3]+ core in high yield to get [99mTc(CO)3(MN-TZ-BPA)]+, which was very hydrophilic and was stable at room temperature. Biodistribution studies in tumor-bearing mice showed that
[99mTc(CO)3(MN-TZ-BPA)]+ accumulated in the tumor with certain initial uptake while poor retention. The rapid clearance from normal organs with favorable
tumor/muscle ratios warrants further research to improve tumor targeting efficacy and pharmacokinetic profile of radiolabeled
nitroimidazoles by structural modification.
HyperLab is a new Ge gamma-ray analysis code for MS Windows, developed using object-oriented design. The novel feature of the program is the extensive use of relational database technology, which allows the efficient storage and handling of any digital data encountered in gamma-ray spectroscopy. While preserving the main concept of the predecessors (HYPERMET and its derivatives) for semi-automatic analysis of multichannel pulse-height spectra, the substantially reshaped basic routines vastly improved the stability and reliability of peak fitting. New features include the fitting of peaks with high energy tail, as well as library-directed Graphical Isotope Identification. Procedures for efficiency, nonlinearity, etc. calibrations are now highly automated. By exploiting all the benefits of MS Windows technology (point-and-click simplicity in task executions, intelligent mouse pointer, etc.) HyperLab is a versatile and user-friendly tool which the discriminating spectroscopist will find of great value.
From 1880, the year of funding the
National Phylloxera Research Station, the predecessor of the present Department
of Zoology of the Plant Protection Institute, the main thrust of entomological
research was towards solving practical problems in agriculture, which mission
governs our recent activity and guides our plans for the future. Our studies on
the behaviour of herbivorous insects have shown that oligophagy is mainly due
to the sensitivity of the insects'
chemosensory system to deterrent chemicals occurring in the non-host plants.
This enables the use of antifeedants in pest control. In field experiments the
insects found their hosts largely by chance, which has implications for crop
rotation. The ability of learning in some herbivorous insect species has been
demonstrated. It may result in induced preference for some otherwise avoided
plants. Ecological studies indicated that predispersal seed predators do not
necessarily affect plant population dynamics and that there is no interspecific
competition among them. Studying the presumable processes that drive the
evolution of insect-plant associations resulted in elaborating the theory of
sequential evolution instead of the theory of coevolution. In course of 30 year
studies, female-produced sex pheromones were evidenced in behavioural studies,
isolated, and chemically identified in cooperations with organic chemical
laboratories, for a few dozens of lepidopterous species. Related sex
attractants were established by means of field trappings for further dozens of
species. Based on these results, the role of sex pheromones in maintaining
reproductive isolation between taxonomically closely related, sympatric
species, as well as the chemotaxonomical value of sex attractants in higher
taxa of Lepidoptera are discussed. As a result of our studies on Elateridae
(Coleoptera) we developed and optimized pheromone baits and traps for catching
males of all important pest Agriotes click beetles in Central and Western
Europe. The most effective pheromone combinations for each species were tested
in a Europe-wide comparative effort, giving information on the probable
importance of the respective species in the respective area. In Scarabaeidae
(Coleoptera) we discovered sex attractants for 3 species of the genus Anomala,
and floral attractants for 4 species of the subfamily Cetoniinae, all orchard
pests damaging fruits or flowers. Traps were developed for these scarabs taking
into consideration the optimal visual and chemical cues for each respective
species. The trap and bait combinations show preliminary evidence that their
use for direct control through mass trapping is possible. Among chrysomelid
beetles, new trap types were developed for the western corn rootworm Diabrotica
v. virgifera. These trap types are widely used in Europe for the detection and
monitoring of the pest. Most recent results concern the relationships between
host-plant related and pheromonal communication in flea beetles (Phyllotreta
of 2 mins), where the participants were free to respond as frequently as desired to earn real money (by clicking a button), while receiving feedback about the amount of money earned after each click and their global performance after each block
. Firstly enter “b 411” in the Type-Ahead Buffer to display the BEGIN window. Then enter “alleng” in the Set Files text box. Next enter “bridge and py ≥ 2,000” in the Select text box. Finally, click “Run Search”. The results of your DIALINDEX search are