In many clique search algorithms well coloring of the nodes is employed to find an upper bound of the clique number of the given graph. In an earlier work a non-traditional edge coloring scheme was proposed to get upper bounds that are typically better than the one provided by the well coloring of the nodes. In this paper we will show that the same scheme for well coloring of the edges can be used to find lower bounds for the clique number of the given graph. In order to assess the performance of the procedure we carried out numerical experiments.
Let R be a commutative ring and Max (R) be the set of maximal ideals of R. The regular digraph of ideals of R, denoted by , is a digraph whose vertex set is the set of all non-trivial ideals of R and for every two distinct vertices I and J, there is an arc from I to J whenever I contains a J-regular element. The undirected regular (simple) graph of ideals of R, denoted by Γreg(R), has an edge joining I and J whenever either I contains a J-regular element or J contains an I-regular element. Here, for every Artinian ring R, we prove that |Max (R)|−1≦ω(Γreg(R))≦|Max (R)| and , where k is the number of fields, appeared in the decomposition of R to local rings. Among other results, we prove that is strongly connected if and only if R is an integral domain. Finally, the diameter and the girth of the regular graph of ideals of Artinian rings are determined.
Authors:Afshin Amini, Babak Amini, Ehsan Momtahan, and Mohammad Hassan Shirdareh Haghighi
We associate a graph Γ+(R) to a ring R whose vertices are nonzero proper right ideals of R and two vertices I and J are adjacent if I+J=R. Then we try to translate properties of this graph into algebraic properties of R and vice versa. For example, we characterize rings R for which Γ+(R) respectively is connected, complete, planar, complemented or a forest. Also we find the dominating number of Γ+(R).
Authors:Alireza Abbasi, Liaquat Hossain, Shahadat Uddin, and Kim J. R. Rasmussen
illustrates that these four largest cliques in inter-institutional network are fragmented except cliquenumber 2 (mainly Canadian institutes) and number 3 (mainly Italian institutes). Only one institute is part of two cliques, namely the “ École Polytechnique