Administration should solidify the legal basis for its authority over reproductive cloning. Stem Cells Dev., 2013, 22 (Suppl. 1), 46–49.
Osadolor, I. O., Tecpanecatl, G. E., Rodriguez, M. S.: The Mexican national
Gliadin is a main component of gluten proteins that affect functional properties of bread making and contributes to the viscous nature of doughs. In this study, thirteen novel ω-gliadin genes were identified in several Triticum species, which encode the ARH-, ATDand ATN-type proteins. Two novel types of ω-gliadins: ATD- and ATN- have not yet been reported. The lengths of 13 sequences were ranged from 927 to 1269 bp and the deduced mature proteins were varied from 309 to 414 residues. All 13 genes were pseudogenes because of the presence of internal stop codons. The primary structure of these ω-gliadin genes included a signal peptide, a conserved N-terminal domain, a repetitive domain and a conserved C-terminus. In this paper, we first characterize ω-gliadin genes from T. timopheevi ssp. timopheevi and T. timopheevi ssp. araraticum. The ω-gliadin gene variation and the evolutionary relationship of ω-gliadin family genes were also discussed.
Cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) involves replacing an egg’s nucleus with the nucleus of an adult cell (or that derived from an embryo or foetus) to be cloned, and then activating the egg’s further development without fertilisation.Provided that unhealthy clones would be detected at veterinary inspection and quality controls and thus be prevented from entering the food chain, the currently available data indicate that food products from clones of cattle and pigs and their progeny are as safe as food products of livestock derived by conventional breeding. None of the available studies have identified any differences outside the normal variability in the composition of meat (cattle and swine) and milk (cattle) between clones or clone progeny, and their comparators. After years of study and analysis it has been concluded that meat and milk from clones of cattle, swine and goats and the offspring of clones from species traditionally consumed as food, are as safe to eat as food from conventionally bred animals. Doubts have been expressed whether the current situation regarding the welfare and health of animal clones is ethically justified by the existing arguments in support of cloning for food.
-Vékony , G. , Jakab , M. , Berta , J. , Milch , H. , Füzi , M. : Expansion and countrywide dissemination of ST11, ST15 and ST147 ciprofloxacin- resistant CTX-M-15-type beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae epidemic clones in Hungary in
Ring shaped patches of clonal plants fascinated plant ecologists since long time. In this work we review the reports on the occurrence of ring pattern in different environmental conditions, the growth forms of ring-forming plants, the mechanisms underlying ring formation, and the consequences for species diversity at community scale. Rings formed by 83 species of clonal vascular plants have been found in grasslands, deserts, bare substrates of lava flow, harvested peat lands, salt marshes, and sand dunes. Four causal hypotheses have been proposed for the emergence of ring patterns: i. occurrence of architectural constraints for ramets development; ii. induction by fire, drought, trampling or overgrazing; iii. nutrient and water depletion by competition inside the ring; and iv. onset of species-specific negative plant-soil feedback in the inner zone of the clone. Since almost all the available studies are observations of ring structure or modelling exercises, none of the putative mechanisms for ring formation emerged from the literature as either generally applicable or suitable for rejection. Therefore, long-term field experiments are needed to investigate the relative prevalence of different mechanisms in different environments. Ring formation bears important consequences at community scale, because ring forming plants often act as “nurses”, enhancing the recruitment and development of different plant species. In fact, ring establishment modifies above- and below-ground environmental conditions, providing specialized safe sites for beneficiaries in the inner zone of the clones. Such interspecific facilitation by ring forming plants, particularly in chronically stressed environments, contributes to increase plant species richness and can locally promote the successional dynamics.
For two distinct primes p, q, we describe those clones on a set of size pq that contain a given group operation and all constant operations. We show that each such clone is determined by congruences
and commutator relations. Thus we obtain that there is only a finite number of such clones on a fixed set.
Lake Hévíz is the largest natural thermal lake of Europe, harboring special bacterial communities. The aim of the present study was to gain information about the distribution and species diversity of the sediment microbiota, with special focus on Actinobacteria, by using cultivation-based and -independent molecular methods. Samples from two depths were taken in two different locations in October 2007. 245 strains were isolated, grouped to 85 OTUs by ARDRA, and identified by 16S rDNA sequencing. Most of the strains showed highest sequence similarity with
and related genera. Strains belonging to the phylum Actinobacteria were identified as members of
Arthrobacter, Brachybacterium, Brevibacterium, Curtobacterium, Friedmanniella, Gordonia, Kocuria, Microbacterium, Micrococcus, Micromonospora, Mycobacterium, Rhodococcus, Streptomyces
. Two clone libraries were constructed from H3M and H4M samples, providing 288 and 192 clones which were grouped to 150 and 125 OTUs, respectively, by ARDRA. The two most abundant group of the H4M library were OP8-related. The phylum Proteobacteria was represented mostly by
-Proteobacteria, other relevant groups were Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria and
-Proteobacteria. The H3M library was dominated by Cyanobacteria, Verrucomicrobia,
-Proteobacteria. Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes, Spirochetes and Firmicutes were scarce. Results from the clone libraries were compared to the length-heterogeneity-PCR fingerprints of the communities.
, encoding pEtN transferases, have also been reported in K. pneumoniae [ 11 ]. Dissemination of CRKP is mainly caused by the spread of a few successful clones. Major representatives of these high-risk clonal lineages include sequence type (ST) 11, ST15, ST