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prerequisite for such interactions is the co-location of interpreters, a condition often unmet amid COVID-19 while interpreters work more virtually than before. To reflect this new reality, AIIC (2020a) has identified four common scenarios of distance

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Abstract  

This article depicts some features of the geography of science and technology outputs in the EU, with a particular attention to regional “co-location” of these two pillars of the “knowledge-based society”. Economists have, for a decade, paid great attention to local “spillovers” stating that industrial firms often draw advantages from the presence of nearby academic centres. The presence in the same areas of strong academic and technological resources is both a condition and a result of science-technology interactions. Concentrating on publications and patents as proxies of the science and technology level in regions, we built a typology of regions according to their commitment to the two knowledge-base activities and then analysed the co-locations of science and technology from several points of view. A fine-grain lattice, mainly based on standard Nuts3 level, was used. Co-location, at the EU level, is not a general rule. A strong potential for spillover/ interaction does exist in the top-class regions which concentrate a high proportion of European S and T output. But for regions with a small/medium level of S&T activity, a divergence of orientations appears between a science-oriented family and a technology-oriented family, indicating an imbalance between local S and T resources. If we look at the S-oriented regions, whilst controlling for underlying factors, such as population and regional economic product, a significant geographic linkage between T and S appears. This suggests a trajectory of science-based technological development. A careful examination of S&T thematic alignments and specialisation is necessary to develop the hypothesis that fostering academic resources could increase the technological power along a growth path.

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The theory of âeœcodon-amino acid coevolutionâe? was first proposed by Woese in 1967. It suggests that there is a stereochemical matching - that is, affinity - between amino acids and certain of the base triplet sequences that code for those amino acids. We have constructed a Common Periodic Table of Codons and Amino Acids, where the Nucleic Acid Table showed perfect axial symmetry for codons and the corresponding Amino Acid Table also displayedperiodicity regarding the biochemical properties (charge and hydrophobicity) of the 20 amino acids and the position of the stop signals. The Table indicates that the middle (2 nd) amino acid in the codon has a prominent role in determining some of the structural features of the amino acids. The possibility that physical contact between codons and amino acids might exist was tested on restriction enzymes. Many recognition site-like sequences were found in the coding sequences of these enzymes and as many as 73 examples of codon-amino acid co-location were observed in the 7 known 3D structures (December 2003) of endonuclease-nucleic acid complexes. These results indicate that the smallest possible units of specific nucleic acid-protein interaction are indeed the stereochemically compatible codons and amino acids.

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F. , van Oort F. , Geertman S. , Hooimeijer P. ( 2014 ), Science parks and the co-location of high-tech small- and medium-sized firms in China’s Shenzhen . Urban Studies , 51 ( 5 ), 1073 – 1089

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12 157 169 Bulte, C. van den — Moenaert, R. K. (1998): The Effects of R&D Team Co-location on Communication Patterns among R&D, Marketing, and

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approach and explaining our key variables. We report our findings in the results section, then close the paper with our conclusions. 2 Theoretical background It has been thoroughly demonstrated that firms benefit from co-location through various forms of

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. Educational Researcher , 27 ( 2 ), 4 – 13 . Song , M. , Berends , H. , van der Bij , H. , & Weggeman , M. ( 2007 ). The effect of IT and co-location on knowledge dissemination . Journal of Product Innovation Management , 24 ( 1 ), 52 – 68

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors:
Sara Davoudabadi
,
Hossein Goudarzi
,
Mehdi Goudarzi
,
Abdollah Ardebili
,
Ebrahim Faghihloo
,
Javad Yasbolaghi Sharahi
, and
Ali Hashemi

Y , Zhang Z , Co-location of the blaKPC-2, blaCTX-M-65, rmtB and virulence relevant factors in an IncFII plasmid from a

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affected by the rapid spread of information technologies in the 1990s, our results seem to suggest that technology, at least within national and disciplinary boundaries, is an imperfect substitute for geographic co-location (Cummings and Kiesler 2007

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