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Dinant, S., Blaise, F., Kusiak, C., Asterier-Manifacier, S. and Albouy, J. (1993): Heterologous resistance to potato virus Y in transgenic tobacco plants expressing the coat protein gene of lettuce mosaic virus. Phytophatology 83, 818

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, S., Gonsalves, C., Slingtom, J. L. and Gonsalves, D. (1991): Protection against detrimental effects of potyvirus infection in transgenic tobacco plants expressing the papaya ringspot virus coat protein gene. Bio/Technology 9, 752

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Cerovska, N., Moravec, T., Filigarova, M. and Petrzik, K.(2001): Nucleotide sequences of 5′-terminal parts of coat protein genes of various isolates of NTN strain of potato virus Y. Acta Virologica 45, 55

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Chen, T., Chen, M. and Yeh, S. (2000): Characterization of the coat protein gene of a turnip mosaic virus isolate infecting garland chrysanthemum. Plant Protection Bulletin 42, 83-96. Characterization of the coat protein gene

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The nucleotide sequence of the coat protein (CP) gene and the 3' non-translated region, in relation to aphid transmission of 7 potato tuber necrotic ringspot isolates of Potato virus Y (PVYNTN) were studied. Five isolates originated from different areas of potato fields in Hungary and two German isolates served as controls. A 5' tail of the nucleotide sequences of the CP region and 3' non-translated region (NTR) were determined. Sequence data were sent to the EMBL GeneBank Database. Homology of nucleotide and amino acid sequences were high among the studied PVY isolates. According to the characteristic regions, all isolates belonged to the PVYNTN strain. All of the tested isolates could be transmitted by the aphid Myzus persicae Sulzer to the test plant Nicotiana tabacum L. verifying the wide distribution of tuber necrotic ringspot strain in Hungary. Our data suggest that the high homology found in the CP region of the different isolates, are suitable for development of coat protein mediated resistance against PVY in commercially important host plants like, e.g. potato.

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During our recent four years epidemiological studies ofMaize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) populations in Hungary, when 86 virus isolates were collected and analysed, a unique nucleic acid sequence variant was found in the 3’end region of the viral genome. According to our sequence studies, which also included all available MDMV sequences from different databanks, the coat protein region of the viral genome prooved to be quite identical. However, in several cases an insertion was located in the same position of the coat protein region. In the unique sequence variant we also found a 27 nt deletion in addition to the insertion. According to the extensive sequence search this deletion is unique and have been located only in two other potyvirus coat protein regions, while never in the case of MDMV. The potential role of this deletion in the virus infectivity, replication or other biological characteristics is discussed.

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Maize dwarf mosaic is the most widespread virus disease affecting corn production in Hungary and Bulgaria. Samples from virus infected maize were collected from different part of Bulgaria and employed test plants, ELISA serological method and RT-PCR in order to identify the viral pathogen. Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) was detected in all tested samples. For further investigation three MDMV isolates were selected and cloned. Cloned cDNAs representing the coat protein gene of the virus have been sequenced. The coat protein genes of Bulgarian and Hungarian isolates of MDMV were compared. The nucleotide sequence identity and amino acid sequence similarity of the coat protein region varied from 88% to 99.1% and from 95.1% to 99.6%, respectively. The N-terminal region of coat protein was compared with other members SCMV subgroup and phylogenetic tree was constructed.

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Members of the family Closteroviridae have been traditionally defined as plant viruses with thread-like particles having messenger-sense single-stranded RNA, the largest genomes among RNA plant viruses. Individual virus species are distributed worldwide and some of them cause devastating crop losses. The natural host range usually narrow. Diseases symptoms are yellowing type or pitting and/or groowing of the woody cylinder. Infection systemic, but usually limited to the floem. Natural vectors are aphids, whiteflies, pseudococcids, coccids and mealybugs. Trans­mission is semipersistant. Closteroviruses contains 9-13 ORFs flanked by 5'- and 3'- untranslated regions with different length. The genome strategy is based on  polyprotein precessing, +1 ribosomal frame­shift and formation of subgenomic RNAs. Common features of closteroviruses that encode a homologue of HSP70 molecular chaperones found in all cells (HSP70h) and a duplicate (CPd) of the coat protein gene.

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Wheat dwarf virus (WDV) is one of the most common viruses on cereal crops in Poland. Studies were undertaken aiming at molecular characterization of Polish isolates of the virus. The presence of two main groups, WDV-barley- and WDV-wheat-specific forms, in field samples has been confirmed. Detection and differentiation of WDV isolates was conducted using immuno-capture polymerase chain reactions. The studies were carried out on a set of 68 samples collected from different parts of the country. Obtained results demonstrated that WDV-wheat-specific form can infect all tested cereals: wheat, triticale, rye and barley while WDV-barley-specific form was identified mainly in barley and in rare cases in wheat plants. Comparative analysis of coat protein gene was performed using 16 WDV isolates originated from different hosts revealed high (>98%) nucleotide sequence identity. Moreover, WDVwheat- specific (Pol-WDV-W) and WDV-barley-specific (WDV-B) isolates were fully sequenced. Based on nucleotide sequence similarity, Pol-WDV-W should be classified as WDV-E and WDV-B as WDV-F strains. This is the first report of the complete sequence of WDV isolates from Poland.

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Összefoglalás

A potyvírusok családjába tartozó kukorica csíkos mozaik vírus (Maize dwarf mosaic virus, MDMV) az egyszikű növények egyik legjelentősebb kórokozója. Az MDMV genetikai állományának nagyfokú változékonysága és ennek lehetséges patológiai következményei figyelmünket a vírus tüneti determinánsainak és populációjának részletesebb elemzésére irányította. Vizsgálataink a köpenyfehérjét (CP- coat protein) kódoló régió összehasonlító analízisére terjednek ki.

Mintáinkat négy egymást követő évben (2006–2009) két, földrajzilag jól elkülönülő területről, a szegedi Gabonatermesztési Kht. tenyészkertjéből kukoricáról (Zea mays L. convar. saccharata), fenyércirokról (Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers) és szemes cirokról (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), valamint martonvásári tenyészparcellákról gyűjtöttük. A polimeráz láncreakció (PCR) módszerrel felszaporított köpenyfehérje gének nukleinsav sorrendjét meghatároztuk, majd feltérképeztük a vírus molekuláris rokonsági körét. Az izolátumok közti eltérés 0–13,6%-ig terjed, attól függően, hogy a köpenyfehérje gén N-terminális, központi- illetve C-terminális régióját vizsgáltuk. Az összesen nyolcvanhat MDMV izolátum közül öt esetben (Mv0702, Mv0801, Mv0811, Mv0814 és Mv0905) találtunk a köpenyfehérje N-terminális régiójában 13 aminosav hosszúságú inszerciót, ezek az izolátumok az adatbázisban megtalálható Argentin és Spanyol izolátumokkal egy külön csoportot alkotnak. A kapott eredmények azt igazolják, hogy az izolátumok a mintagyűjtés évétől és földrajzi helyétől függetlenül oszlanak el a törzsfán, a populáció stabil.

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