Authors:Eman Abd Allah, Asmaa Gomaa, and Manal Sayed
Thyroid hormones and omega-3 are essential for normal brain functions. Recent studies have suggested that omega-3 may protect against the risk of dementia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hypothyroidism on spatial learning and memory in adult male rats, the underlying mechanisms and the possible therapeutic value of omega-3 supplementation. Thirty male rats were divided into three groups; control, hypothyroid and omega-3 treated. Hypothyroidism induced significant deficits in working and reference memories in radial arm maze, retention deficits in passive avoidance test and impaired intermediate and long-term memories in novel object recognition test. Serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and hippocampal serotonin and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels were decreased in the hypothyroid group as compared to the control group. Moreover, the hippocampus of hypothyroid rats showed marked structural changes as diffuse vacuolar degeneration and distortion of the pyramidal cells. Immunohistochemistry showed that the expression of Cav1.2 (the voltage dependent LTCC alpha 1c subunit) protein was increased in the hypothyroid group as compared to the control group. Omega-3 supplementation ameliorated memory deficits, increased TAC, decreased the structural changes and decreased the expression of Cav1.2 protein. In conclusion omega-3 could be useful as a neuroprotective agent against hypothyroidism-induced cognitive impairment.
Authors:Miklós Győri, Ágnes Lukács, and Csaba Pléh
Agency: Core architecture and domain specificity. In L. A. Hirschfeld and S. Gelman (eds): Mapping the Mind. Domain Specificity in Cognition and Culture . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mapping the Mind
Secrecy was one of the major features of the so-called mystery cults that met with significant diffusion and popularity throughout the Greco-Roman world. The Roman cult of Mithras was a particular example of mysteries that took place in secret, without any public aspect.
This paper examines the ways in which the major symbolic systems of the Mithras cult, the mithraea, the scene of the tauroctony and the hierarchy of the initiatory grades, would have operated as elaborated security systems that would have contributed to the secrecy of the cult, obstructing both the physical and cognitive access of the uninitiated to their symbolic meanings.
Further, the cognitive processes that mediate the attractiveness of secret communities and forge social cohesion among members of secret groups are explored. It is argued that secrecy was a crucial aspect which would have promoted the formation of close exclusive communities of Mithraists and the development of social cohesion between the cult members.
for inhibitory control of action and cognition . Journal of Neuroscience , 27 ( 44 ), 11860 – 11864 . https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.364407.2007 . 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3644-07.2007 Barnow , S. , Schuckit , M. A. , Lucht , M. , John , U
Authors:Francesco Del Prete, Trevor Steward, Juan F. Navas, Fernando Fernández-Aranda, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, Tian P. S. Oei, and José C. Perales
dropout rates in such interventions remain high ( Aragay et al., 2015 ). To enhance currently available treatment options, a better understanding of the mechanisms underpinning GD is crucial.
Recently, the role of altered gambling cognitions in the