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which should aim at developing the communicative competence. Among the components of the communicative competence, there is the discourse competence that is viewed as a signigicant element of the language and speech development ( Cadre européen commun de

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How can one assure an acceptable level of rigor in our research? How ca none select and apply a relevant methodology and then, how can one evaluate it? These are the questions each and every researcher has to face. Pilot projects are not only helpful in this regard but in fact are decisive in the proper design of the final project. In this article I would like to share some reflections about the role of pilot projects in the preparation of scientific research. The references will mostly be made to may own project whose objective was to develop advanced students’ competence in preparing and presenting public speech.

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Introduction Competence is a well-known term in Europe, and the concepts of competence have been widely used in education and training, particularly in teacher training, because it provides a solid basis to build on. Thus, one of the fundamental

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The aim of the present article is to give an overview of the most important approaches to translation competence. As the term ‘competence’ is used in a somewhat arbitrary way in translation studies, psychological approaches to competence are reviewed first. Then some influential translation competence models are presented and analyzed. Translation competence models are classified into three categories based on Pym (2003). The outlined translation competence models are also related to the psychological concepts of competence described at the beginning of the study. Finally, recurrent issues related to translation competence are identified and discussed briefly. These issues involve the relationship between language competence and translation competence; the existence of a separate transfer component of competence, the status of natural translation and the differences between L1→L2 and L2→L1 translation. It is concluded that none of the models of translation competence is inherently better than the others. It is always the purpose of a given piece of research or project that should determine the type of competence model to be adopted.

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Flaesch-Mougin, C. (1993): Le Traité de Maastricht et les compétences externes de la Communauté européenne: à la recherche ďune politique externe de ľUnion. Cahiers de droit européen , no. 3–4. Flaesch-Mougin C

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Introduction In Vietnamese education context, there is no competence criteria directly relating to social and emotional competence (SEC) to teachers. As such, both in-service and pre-service teachers are assumed to have

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condition, however, the reference limb stays in the target position, and the reproduction occurs with the contralateral limb ( 8 ). Proprioceptive acuity plays an important role in various aspects of physical competence. For example, it is associated

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practice of translator training. More precisely, we have analysed the relationship among autonomy support, amotivation, critical thinking, and strategic competence as perceived by student translators. Translators' strategic competence has been understood as

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barriers to maintain its market share and to raise its revenue and profitability by means of innovation. However, firms need to cultivate related technological competences to develop new innovation. Innovation-based companies should continue to develop

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CHUANG, Y. (1999): Fusion: The primary model of bicultural competence and bicultural identity development in a Taiwanese-American family lineage. Dissertation Abstracts International, A (Humanities and Social

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