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., Chakrabarti S., Singh B. 2013. Complete genome sequence of potato leafroll virus isolates infecting potato in the different geographical areas of India shows low level genetic diversity. Indian J. Virol. 24 :199

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, H. , Uchiyama , J. , Tamukai , K. , Katayama , Y. , Osawa , N. , Suzuki , K. , Mizutani , T. and Ochiai , H. ( 2019 ): Complete genome sequence of an adenovirus-1 isolate from an African pygmy hedgehog . Microbiol. Resour. Announc

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genome sequence for Turkish isolate of Wheat dwarf virus (WDV) from barley confirms the presence of two distinct WD Vstrains. Virus Genes 34 :359–366. Kvarnheden A. The complete

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825 832 Choi, S. H., Ryu, K. H. (2008) Determination of complete genome sequence of Korean isolate of Potato virus X . Plant Pathol. J. 24 , 361

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Péter Pankovics, Ákos Boros, Melinda Rovács, Erika Nagy, Erika Krisztián, Mária Vollain, and Gábor Reuter

. Clinical virology 2009 Finkbeiner, S. R., Kirkwood, C. D., Wang, D.: Complete genome sequence of a highly

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Two wheat-infecting isolates of WDV-WDV-B and WDV-F- were collected in the field of Martonvásár and Nagykovácsi. The complete genomes were amplified by PCR, cloned into pBKS+ plasmid and sequenced. The nucleotide divergence in the total genome of the five isolates-WDV- Fra, WDV-Cz, WDV-Swe, WDV-B and WDV-F-originating from different part of Europe were found to be 0.44-1.69%. The four genes- MP, CP, RepA and Rep-and two non-coding region-LIR and SIR- were compared and a phylogenetic tree was constructed.

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Porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) is considered to be a non-pathogenic virus detected in cell cultures, vaccines or products used for cell culture preparations, all of them of porcine origin. Serological evidence and genetic studies suggested that PCV1 was widespread in domestic pigs. The presence of PCV1 in wild boars in Germany was also described using serological methods. This paper reports the first detection of PCV1 in Hungarian wild boars. Samples were collected at slaughterhouses and processed for polymerase chain reactions. The complete genome of PCV1 detected in the samples was determined and compared with the available PCV1 sequences of the GenBank database. The genomes formed two distinct clusters with minimum differences, where the Hungarian wild boar PCV1 (WB-H8) grouped together with genomes originating from domestic swine from China and Australia and with a genome detected in a porcine pepsin product.

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Complete genome sequences of bovine viral diarrhoea virus types 1 and 2 (BVDV-1 and 2) deposited in the GenBank were submitted to bioinformatic analysis using a recombination-detecting software. The results indicate that recombination events are not rare in the case of BVDV, which frequently causes immunotolerance and, consequently, persistent infection in calves. The lack of specific immunity provides an ideal possibility for multiple infections by antigenically related but genetically different BVDV strains, and hence recombinations may occur. Among the 62 BVDV-1 genomes five recombinants and their possible parent strains, while among the 50 BVDV-2 genomes one simple recombinant and its parent strains were identified, which were supported by extremely strong probability values (P values varying between 1.26 × 10–4 and 1.58 × 10–310). Besides the newly identified recombinants, recombination events described previously were confirmed, but in some of these cases former information was completed with new data, or different parent(s) were suggested by the programme (RDP 4.46 BETA) used in this study.

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Research on sugarcane biotechnology began in the 1960s with in vitro culture. Serious efforts to improve sugarcane crops by molecular approaches have commenced only in the past two decades. There is an increasing pressure worldwide to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in order to sustain profitable sugar industries, while there are several diseases attacking sugarcane and reducing the quality of the crop. Biotechnological approaches for sugarcane improvement have been applied in the areas of: (1) cell and tissue culture for rapid propagation genetic transformation and molecular breeding, (2) engineering novel genes into commercial cultivars, (3) molecular diagnostics of sugarcane pathogens, (4) developing genetic maps using molecular marker technology, (5) understanding the molecular basis of sucrose accumulation in the stem, (6) molecular testing of plants for clonal fidelity, (7) variety identification and (8) molecular characterization of various traits. Most of the current research in sugarcane biotechnology is recently focused primarily on transgenic and marker assisted breeding. Advancements have made it possible to sequence the complete genome of increasingly complex organisms and to clone and transfer individual genes to engineer new traits.

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Trudy M. Wassenaar, Anke Zschüttig, Claudia Beimfohr, Thomas Geske, Christian Auerbach, Helen Cook, Kurt Zimmermann, and Florian Gunzer

The probiotic product Symbioflor2 (DSM 17252) is a bacterial concentrate of six different Escherichia coli genotypes, whose complete genome sequences are compared here, between each other as well as to other E. coli genomes. The genome sequences of Symbioflor2 E. coli components contained a number of virulence-associated genes. Their presence seems to be in conflict with a recorded history of safe use, and with the observed low frequency of adverse effects over a period of more than 6 years. The genome sequences were used to identify unique sequences for each component, for which strain-specific hybridization probes were designed. A colonization study was conducted whereby five volunteers were exposed to an exceptionally high single dose. The results showed that the probiotic E. coli could be detected for 3 months or longer in their stools, and this was in particular the case for those components containing higher numbers of virulence-associated genes. Adverse effects from this long-term colonization were absent. Thus, the presence of the identified virulence genes does not result in a pathogenic phenotype in the genetic background of these probiotic E. coli.

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