Benczes , R. – Ságvári , B. ( 2018 ): Where Metaphors Really Come from: Social Factors as Contextual Influence in Hungarian Teenagers’ Metaphorical Conceptualizations of Life . Cognitive Linguistics 29 ( 1 ): 121 ‒ 54
Scientific discovery is often identified with the sheer observation of a new phenomenon. Thomas Kuhn has convincingly shown this idea to be false, stressing the vital role that theory and conceptualization play in this process. The history of contextual analysis nicely illustrates the validity of Kuhn's argument: although its earliest applications date back to the 19th century, it was not until Paul Lazarsfeld discussed its basic logic in the 1950s that the potentials of this method have been fully noticed. What Lazarsfeld added to isolated uses of this technique was a conceptual framework that greatly facilitated the diffusion of contextual analysis within the sociological community. This example shows that for a new method to get firmly established, mere application is not enough - serious conceptual work is needed as well. It also demonstrates a central characteristic of Lazarfeld's general methodological philosophy - namely, the strong commitment to the explication of the logical foundations of the procedures employed in empirical social research.
This paper focusses on the conceptualising function of Scottish Gaelic preposed adjectives (i.e., AN vs. NA phrases). A combined analysis of a corpus study and interviews with native speakers was applied in the research which underlies the article. Preposed adjectives are often encountered with abstract concepts, verbal nouns, or with words with more complex semantics in general, while plain adjectives tend to qualify more tangible, countable nouns, such as people or objects, as well as pronouns. The plain adjective dona ‘bad’ often conveys criticism, and aosta/sean ‘old’ tend to refer to biological (or physical) age. The paper also addresses similarities with other languages.
The methodological task of defining “translation” across languages forms an apparent aporia, since there is no guarantee that the different terms that might express “translation” are in fact translations of each other. One solution is to propose a formal conceptualization of “translation”, in practice a set of criteria, a research filter, that the scholar imposes on the prior multilingual data. However, this act of imposition may neutralize the dynamic variability and historicity of the many culturally different ways of thinking about translation. Here the extent of that imposition is guaged by taking three examples of formal conceptualizations, from Toury, Gutt and Pym, and testing them on three cases of potentially borderline translational practices. It is found that the formal conceptualizations are not simple cultural impositions and can in fact allow considerable space for the historical study of textuality, receptive positions, and the semi-concealed subjectivities of translators.
Authors:Janusz Bańczerowski and Dorota Dziewońska-Kiss
The main goal of this article is the reconstruction of the linguistic image of the concept of ‘death’ which has been registered in the actual users of the Polish language. To achieve this, we have used a questionnaire that consisted of 17 questions and was answered by 134 participants. The analysis of the material showed that the definitions found in the dictionaries that reflect the linguistic categorization and conceptualization of the reality, unfortunately, do not consider the full image of the concept of ‘death’ and do not register the actual state of it.
Authors:A. Hohenester, L. Mathelitsch and M. Moravcsik
The results of a survey are reported and interpreted, pertaining to the way scientists use the terms theory and model to conceptualize the scientific information and ideas they deal with. Initially the assessment of the importance of a new theoretical approach in science is done to a large extent on the basis of the conceptual structure of the new approach, but later the predictive power plays an increasingly more important role. It is suggested that results like those in this study might perhaps be used to critically evaluate new theoretical approaches in science even at the time of their conception.
. Throughout the following sections, we will argue that GD can be conceptualized as an ER affliction in the sense that deficits in ER-processing account for etiology and maintenance of GD. Our main objective was to use validated models of ER to provide a