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Abstract  

The effect of sodium borate decahydrate as a nondurable treatment on the flammability of 100% cotton fabric (woven plain 150 g m−2) has been investigated in this paper. The laundered bone-dried massed samples were impregnated with suitable concentrations of sodium borate decahydrate. Each bunches of fabrics were dipped into individual aqueous solutions of the salt, followed by means of squeeze rolls and drying at 110°C. By using a ‘vertical flame spread test’ the optimum add-on values to impart flame-retardancy onto cotton fabric was determined to be as 4.24 g salt per 100 g fabric. The objective of this study is thermogravimetry (TG) investigation of pure cotton, treated one with the salt at its optimum efficiency. So that outcomes could be compared and commented, finally the results obtained are in favor of ‘Chemical action theory’, ‘Condensed phase retardation’, ‘Dust or wall effect theory’ and also ‘Gas dilution theory’.

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Abstract  

Blue vitriol (copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate), CuSO4·5H2O has been chosen and investigated for its effectiveness as a flame-retardant, when impregnated into cotton fabric (cotton with a plain structure; woven 180 g m−2, with 22 numbers of yarns per 10 mm). Using the vertical flame test, the extent of resistance to burning of the specimens has been determined. The impregnation was accomplished via dipping and stirring of bone-dried, weighed fabrics into the individual and suitable concentrations of the salt at room temperature. Afterwards the samples were squeeze rolled and dried horizontally at 110°C for 30 min in an oven and cooled in a desiccator and reweighed with an analytical precision. They were then kept under ordinary conditions overnight prior the fulfillment of the vertical flame test. The efficient quantities of the aforesaid salt expressed in g per 100 g dry fabric have been determined in an average figure of 12.75%. Estimation of uniformity in a selected sample was carried out via a spectrophotometer and results are in favor of the heterogeneous distribution of the salt in the fabric’s middle sectors. However initial and final parts of specimen showed to be rather uniformed. Thermogravimetric analysis of the pure cotton and the treated ones with insufficient and effective amounts of the salt were fulfilled and their thermograms were compared and commented. The results obtained for the effect of copper(II) sulfate comply with ‘The Dust or Wall Effect Theory’. This action is also assigned to the condensed phase retardation.

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Abstract  

We have investigated the effect of ‘Graham’s salt’ as a phosphorous containing flame-retardant applied onto cotton fabric. The optimum loading of this salt to impart flameretardancy has been determined to be about 36.78-41-31 g salt per 100 g cotton woven fabric (plain 144 g m−2). Thermogravimetry of pure cotton, treated cotton fabric and the pure salt were accomplished. The curves were then compared and commented. They reveal that this salt thermosensibilized combustion of the treated substrate as a dehydrating agent. The results obtained fortified the ‘Chemical Theory’ and ‘Coating Theory’ evidenced the formation of carbonaceous residue upon the cellulosic substrate during the combustion.

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Abstract  

We have investigated the effect of caustic soda as a nondurable finish on the flammability of 100% cotton fabric (plain 180 g m−2). On the contrary to the mercerization, during the impregnation process, no tension was applied. In order to attain the alkali cellulose onto the fabric, the subsequent neutralization was not followed. Each bunches of fabrics were dipped into individual aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide, followed by means of squeeze rolls and drying at 110°C. After conditioning nightlong, by using our ‘vertical flame test’ the optimum add-on values to impart flame-retardancy into cotton fabric was determined as 1.3 g sodium hydroxide per 100 g fabric. Thermogravimetry and derivative thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) of pure cotton, treated cotton with sodium hydroxide at its optimum efficiency to impart flame-retardancy into the fabric was fulfilled and the obtained curves were compared and commented. The effectiveness of this hydroxide is attributed to the heat dissipation by the remaining material in the consumed ash. The results obtained are in favour of ‘dust or wall effect theory’ and also gas dilution theory.

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Abstract  

The synergism of lithium bromide and antimony trioxide on the flame-retardancy of a cotton fabric (woven, plain 150 g m2) has been investigated in this study. The impregnations of cotton fabric with suitable individual additives and/or their appropriate admixed formulation were carried out. The flammability test has also been fulfilled using described procedure, in the earlier published articles. Their outcomes comply with thermogravimetry’s data. Moreover the latest mentioned outcomes support the catalytic effect of this synergism. Explanation of the data could be in favor of existing flame-retardation’s theories. Ultimately this synergism is in compliance with the green chemistry and economical viewpoints.

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