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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
R.V Salamon
,
É. Vargáné-Visi
,
Cs.D. András
,
Zs. Csapóné Kiss
, and
J. Csapó

The addition of synthetic CLA is a possible way in order to compose foods enriched with conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs). The most environmental friendly methods for CLA synthesis are based on microbial biosynthesis. With homogeneous catalysis using organometallic catalysts (Ru and Rh complexes) high (approximately 80%) yields were obtained with high selectivity related to bioactive isomers. The heterogeneous catalysis has the advantage that at the end of the reaction there is no need for a supplementary separation operation or recycling of the catalyst. In heterogeneous process, the maximum yield may even be higher than 90% and the selectivity remains quite high as the reaction conditions are optimized. The substrates for obtaining CLAs are, in general, linoleic acid or alkyl linoleates and the catalysis is acidic. The yield and the selectivity depend on the strength and the type of acidic sites, as well as on the size distribution of the particles. Beside the existing catalytic methods, a photocatalytic process with UV and visible light irradiation with iodine promoter can be applied.

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The aim of this study was to synthesize structured lipid from hazelnut oil with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) by lipase-catalyzed esterification reaction. The incorporation of CLA into hazelnut oil was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). Substrate molar ratio, time, and temperature were independent variables chosen for optimization of the reaction. Substrate molar ratio was the most significant variable on the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid. Good quadratic model was achieved by multiple regression analysis and backward elimination. Optimal incorporation conditions were determined as follows: reaction temperature, 59 °C; time, 6 hours; substrate molar ratio, 4. Under these optimum conditions, a maximum incorporation ratio of CLA into hazelnut oil of 49.42% was achieved.

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vegetable oils. In addition, AMF is the major dietary source of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in human diet. CLA are positional and geometrical isomers of linoleic fatty acid, with a conjugated double-bond system [ 12 ]. Epidemiological studies have

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The first objective of this study was to reveal the effect of temperature and time on the production of CLA isomers from safflower oil. For this purpose, CLA production was conducted at different temperatures (80–240 °C) and over different time durations (1–10 h). Alkali isomerisation gave a total conversion of 87.8% under the optimal conditions of 240 °C and 8 h (for maximum beneficial isomers), and produced 41.0% trans-10, cis-12, 40.4% cis-9, trans-11, and 6.4% undesirable CLA isomers. The second aim of this study was to determine the effect of temperature and solvents on the purification of CLA isomers. To achieve this, CLA solutions containing different solvents (acetone, methanol, and petroleum ether) were crystallized at several temperatures (0 to –85 °C). It was determined that although the highest CLA purities (94%) were obtained at –55 °C using acetone as the solvent with a yield of 38.1%, the highest yield (89.6%) was determined using petroleum ether at –85 °C with a purity of 88.1%. This paper presents methods to utilize safflower oil and low temperature crystallization process to inexpensively obtain beneficial CLA.

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Ten Holstein cows between 8 and 12 weeks in lactation were used to investigate the effect of feeding full-fat soybean, full-fat sunflower, and a Ca-soap source (Profat) on the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of milk. Cows were fed the experimental fat sources in the dosage of 500 g crude fat daily. The results indicated that milk CLA content increased in relation to the linoleic acid concentration of experimental fat supplements, namely full-fat sunflower increased the most and Profat increased the least the CLA concentration in milk. The strength of the correlation was r=0.62 between the linoleic acid concentration in feed and the CLA content in milk. The strength of correlation increased to r=0.69 when both linoleic acid and linolenic acid concentration of feed were used in the calculation. Considering milk production and the daily production of CLA in milk, the following equation described the relationship between the linoleic acid content of fat supplements and CLA concentration in milk: x=167.52+0.483×y; where x=CLA mg l −1 milk and y=linoleic+linolenic acid content of fat sources, g/day. Along with milk CLA, the trans -C18:1 concentration of milk also increased, but the magnitude of the increase was smaller compared to that of milk CLA.

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In this experiment sunflower oil, soybean oil and fish oil were incubated in rumen-fistulated adult ewes (n = 5) to study conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) production in the rumen. The individual oils were incubated in nylon bags in the rumen on perlite carrier (40% oil, 60% carrier) over a period of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 h for all treatments. During the incubation of each oil primarily the formation of the cis-9, trans-11 isomer of CLA could be observed. Both sunflower and soybean oils showed similar changes in the rumen. After the incubation of these two vegetable oils the proportion of linoleic acid decreased significantly as the duration of incubation increased in the rumen. These changes were accompanied by a significant increase in the amount of cis-9, trans-11 CLA. However, in the case of sunflower oil the rate of formation of the cis-9, trans-11 CLA isomer was significantly higher after the different incubation times as compared to soybean oil. Much lower amounts of CLA were formed when fish oil was incubated in the rumen. The level of cis-9, trans-11 isomer produced during these treatments was 10% less than the amount obtained with the other two oils of vegetable origin. Besides the cis-9, trans-11isomer, trans-10, cis-12 CLA could also be detected during the incubation of the different oils in the rumen. However, the level of this isomer was low and did not show consistent differences among the treatments. The results of this experiment indicate that the fatty acid composition of the oils and the duration of incubation collectively determine the amount of CLA produced in the first compartment of the forestomach of ruminants.

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An experiment was performed to study the effect of different vegetable oils containing high proportions of PUFA (5% soybean oil, SBO; and sunflower oil, SFO; respectively, in the DM of concentrate) or grass silage (150 g DM/d/animal, GSL) on the level of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers and other C18 fatty acids in muscle and adipose tissues of growing lambs. Control animals were fed on the same diet as SBO or SFO groups; however, instead of vegetable oils hydrogenated palm oil containing low level of PUFA was applied. In both muscle and adipose samples tested c-9, t-11 C18:2 showed the highest levels among the CLA isomers, however, t-10, c-12 CLA could also be measured in lower proportions. Considering vegetable oil supplementations, only SBO resulted in a significantly higher level of c-9, t-11 CLA in the triceps brachii muscle as compared to the control. Such a difference could not be detected in either the gracilis muscle or in the adipose tissue samples. However, lambs fed on the GSL diet had significantly higher c-9, t-11 CLA levels in both the triceps and gracilis muscles and lower proportion of t-10, c-12 CLA in the adipose than those fed on the control, SBO and SFO diets, respectively. Concerning C18 fatty acids other than CLA, SFO lambs showed significantly higher proportions of C18:1n-9 than those of control animals in both muscles and perirenal fat tested. However, level of C18:0 in the adipose tissue of GSL lambs was significantly lower than that of the animals fed both control or vegetable oil supplemented diets. Results of this experiments show that different dietary fatty acid sources have various potential to increase CLA contents in the meat of lambs. In addition to vegetable oils rich in PUFA, grass silage may be good dietary source for nutritional manipulation of the fatty acid composition of lamb meat.

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Nutrigenomics examines nutrient-gene interactions on a genome-wide scale. Increased dietary fat or higher non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) from starvation-induced mobilisation may enhance hepatic oxidation and decrease esterification of fatty acids by reducing the expression of the fatty acid synthase gene. The key factors are the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Dietary carbohydrates — both independently and through insulin effect — influence the transcription of the fatty acid synthase gene. Oleic acid or n-3 fatty acids down-regulate the expression of leptin, fatty acid synthase and lipoprotein lipase in retroperitoneal adipose tissue. Protein-rich diets entail a shortage of mRNA necessary for expression of the fatty acid synthase gene in the adipocytes. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are activators of PPAR and also induce apoptosis in adipocytes. Altered rumen microflora produces CLAs that are efficient inhibitors of milk fat synthesis in the mammary gland (‘biohydrogenation theory’). Oral zinc or cadmium application enhances transcription rate in the metallothionein gene. Supplemental CLA in pig diets was found to decrease feed intake and body fat by activating PPARγ-responsive genes in the adipose tissue. To prevent obesity and type II diabetes, the direct modulation of gene expression by nutrients is also possible. Nutrigenomics may help in the early diagnosis of genetically determined metabolic disorders and in designing individualised diets for companion animals.

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] 4 Chinnadurai, K., Kanwal, K. H., Tyagi, K. A., et al.: High conjugated linoleic acid enriched ghee (clarified butter) increases the antioxidant and antiatherogenic potency in female

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Bassaganya-Riera, J., Hontecillas, R., Horne, W. T., et al.: Conjugated linoleic acid modulates immune responses in patients with mild to moderately active Crohn’s disease. Clin. Nutr., 2012. Apr 19. [Epub ahead of print

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