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The essay is devoted to the role of promise as a moral concept, and, more narrowly, the relationship of promise and offer in contract law. First, it considers the difference between "ordinary" promises and promises having a legal effect. Secondly, the analysis explores to what extent does promise generate obligation. Thereafter, the essay attempts to point to the concept of obligation that provides the best way to establish the moral force of contract. It reaches the conclusion that the relationship between promise as a moral category and facts treated as promise in law is almost accidental. Law is at least indifferent to factors that give rise to moral obligation based upon a promise. However, law (emancipated from the dictates of morals) served freedom better than legal norms formulated in morally coloured terms.

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K. Hug 1992 Domain-specific reasoning: Social contracts, cheating and perspective change Cognition 42 127 171

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whether and to what extent the increased use of temporary contracts has affected output elasticity of employment in Poland. Studying the Polish case is interesting for at least two reasons. First, Poland experienced significant changes in the employment

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Literature Alghamdi , Abdulhadi , The Law of E-Commerce: E-Contracts, E-Business ( 1st edn, AuthorHouse UK 2011

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This paper outlines the results of a recent survey of the UK contract research market, estimated at 900 MECU (1988/89). Most UK contract research organization (CROs) undertake a small but significant amount of overseas contract R & D (both for other Member States and elsewhere), and see this increasing as the Single European Market (SEM) develops. Most UK CROs have participated in EC R & D programmes and viewed involvement as a, generally, positive experience. UK Industrial customers of contract R & D, although more Uk orientated, also believe the SEM will increase the amount of contracting from Member States. Industrial companies involved in EC R & D programmes also noted benefits from involvement. Both UK CROs and the industrial customer organizations saw the SEM and the associated Europeanization process as enhancing commercial contacts with organizations in other Member States.

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Az utóbbi évtizedekben Európában is alapvető társadalmi változások történtek, amelyek a családjogi szabályozást ugyan nem, de a családok életét alapvetően befolyásolták. Megszűnt a házasság kizárólagos szerepe, egyre elfogadottabbá s ezzel egyidejűleg gyakoribbá vált a házasságon kívüli együttélés, az élettársi kapcsolat. Emellett nőtt és jelenleg is nő a bontások száma. Megsokszorozódtak a családmodellek is. Bár a házasság egységes jogi intézmény, a házasságban élők konkrét kapcsolata más és más életkoruktól, életvitelüktől, vagyoni viszonyaiktól, a közös gyermek lététől függően. Az élettársi kapcsolat a házasságnál lényegesen nehezebben határolható be, miután sem kezdő, sem záró időpontja nem formális. Az alábbiakban a házasság és részben vele összevetve az élettársi kapcsolat mint jogi és társadalmi jelenség kerül vizsgálatra, elsősorban arra keresve a választ, hogy akár a házasság, akár az élettársi viszony esetében szövetség- vagy szerződésjellege-e a meghatározóbb. Mind a házasság, mind pedig – igaz, lényegesen szűkebb terjedelemben – a különneműek de facto élettársi kapcsolata vonatkozásában több réteget érintünk: a hatályos jogi szabályozást, annak (bizonyos kérdésekben) az ítélkezési gyakorlatban történő alkalmazását, továbbá a várható új szabályozást, illetve azt, hogy a társadalom miként látszik felfogni ezeket az intézményeket. Külön kitér a tanulmány a vagyonjogi kérdésekre; a házastársak, illetve élettársak vagyoni helyzetének jogi szabályozására, annak az ítélkezési gyakorlatban történő értelmezésére. A vagyonjogi megítélés megfelelően jelzi a jogalkotói, jogalkalmazói elvárásokat. Noha a megközelítés a magyar jogi és társadalmi hozzáállásra fókuszál, röviden említjük azt is, hogy mennyiben eltérő, mennyiben hasonló a házasságról (és az élettársi viszonyról) alkotott európai felfogás.

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In this paper we study left amenability of Lau algebras by introducing left approximate diagonal and virtual diagonal for Lau algebras. Some results related to Hahn-Banach theorem property on foundation topological semigroups are obtained. We introduce the left contractibility of Lau algebras. Some examples for clarifying that left contractibility of Lau algebras is stronger than left amenability of them are given.

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In this paper, I investigate the shareholder value creation potential of a particular combination of corporate risk and capital structure strategies for a non-financial company. I examine the size of shareholder added value when the company increases its financial leverage while keeping its credit rating constant by hedging its asset yield volatility. Ross (1996) shows that by reducing the asset yield volatility of the company, its debt capacity can permanently be increased, which can create 10–15% additional value for shareholders. With the help of my model, I develop an alternative approach to quantify this impact on shareholder value with better calibration characteristics. Uniquely in the technical financial literature, I derive the shareholder value creation potential from the mean-reversion parameters of the asset yield process. Also, I define the optimal structure of swap-basket needed for efficient hedging of industrial asset yield process, and analyse the sensitivity of shareholder added value to the term and transaction costs of applied swap contracts.

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In the United States today, legally defensible data is needed for environmental assessments, waste characterization, and dose assessments. A closer look at the raw data and interpretation of the results can reveal other problems that affect the data usability based on the project data quality objectives. The common problems include the following: incomplete sample dissolution, loss of volatile radionuclides during sample preparation, difficulties in aliquot subsampling during sample preparation, lack of a sample-specific chemical recovery mechanisms, use of an inappropriate sample-specific chemical recovery mechanism, not using enough of the sample-specific chemical recovery mechanism to obtain sufficient counting statistics for the recovery result, gamma-spectrometry misidentification, use of incorrect abundances or intensities, and incomplete separation of isotopes prior to alpha-spectroscopy analysis. These problems can result in the estimation or rejection of the results. Although most of these problems can be avoided, no improvement in their frequency has been noticed over time. This paper is written in an attempt to call attention to the typical problems in hopes that the contract laboratories as well as the government laboratories will review their practices to avoid these problems.

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-scale decontamination operations was it possible to use the contaminated areas again, for example Gruinard Island in the late 1980s [ 48, 136 ]. The need for large-scale decontamination was based on the assumption that humans can contract inhalation or cutaneous anthrax

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