whether and to what extent the increased use of temporary contracts has affected output elasticity of employment in Poland. Studying the Polish case is interesting for at least two reasons. First, Poland experienced significant changes in the employment
This paper outlines the results of a recent survey of the UK contract research market, estimated at 900 MECU (1988/89). Most UK contract research organization (CROs) undertake a small but significant amount of overseas contract R & D (both for other Member States and elsewhere), and see this increasing as the Single European Market (SEM) develops. Most UK CROs have participated in EC R & D programmes and viewed involvement as a, generally, positive experience. UK Industrial customers of contract R & D, although more Uk orientated, also believe the SEM will increase the amount of contracting from Member States. Industrial companies involved in EC R & D programmes also noted benefits from involvement. Both UK CROs and the industrial customer organizations saw the SEM and the associated Europeanization process as enhancing commercial contacts with organizations in other Member States.
This study makes the proposal to introduce the contract remoteness test into the Hungarian civil law as a principal restriction on compensatory damages. The author sums up the development of the reasonable contemplation test in the English common law first formulated in Hadley v. Baxendale. He compares it with Art. 1150 of the Code civil, Art. 252 of the German BGB and Art. 74 of the Vienna Sales Convention, before making his proposal for the new Hungarian Civil Code.
In this paper we study left amenability of Lau algebras by introducing left approximate diagonal and virtual diagonal for Lau algebras. Some results related to Hahn-Banach theorem property on foundation topological semigroups are obtained. We introduce the left contractibility of Lau algebras. Some examples for clarifying that left contractibility of Lau algebras is stronger than left amenability of them are given.
The essay is devoted to the role of promise as a moral concept, and, more narrowly, the relationship of promise and offer in contract law. First, it considers the difference between "ordinary" promises and promises having a legal effect. Secondly, the analysis explores to what extent does promise generate obligation. Thereafter, the essay attempts to point to the concept of obligation that provides the best way to establish the moral force of contract. It reaches the conclusion that the relationship between promise as a moral category and facts treated as promise in law is almost accidental. Law is at least indifferent to factors that give rise to moral obligation based upon a promise. However, law (emancipated from the dictates of morals) served freedom better than legal norms formulated in morally coloured terms.
In this paper, I investigate the shareholder value creation potential of a particular combination of corporate risk and capital structure strategies for a non-financial company. I examine the size of shareholder added value when the company increases its financial leverage while keeping its credit rating constant by hedging its asset yield volatility. Ross (1996) shows that by reducing the asset yield volatility of the company, its debt capacity can permanently be increased, which can create 10–15% additional value for shareholders. With the help of my model, I develop an alternative approach to quantify this impact on shareholder value with better calibration characteristics. Uniquely in the technical financial literature, I derive the shareholder value creation potential from the mean-reversion parameters of the asset yield process. Also, I define the optimal structure of swap-basket needed for efficient hedging of industrial asset yield process, and analyse the sensitivity of shareholder added value to the term and transaction costs of applied swap contracts.
The paper outlines some trends in the development of Hungarian civil law since the political changes. The role of certain social factors having an effect on civil law and trends in court practice are focused upon. In the law of torts the decline of the respect of the State seems to have an importance in recent chases. In the field of contract law problems connected with different kinds of risks are reflected. Both property law and contact law have been concerned in cases where principles of the protection of the owner and those of the protection of bona fide purchaser has been in contradiction. As a result of the growing importance of credit the role of secured transactions has increased.
In the United States today, legally defensible data is needed for environmental assessments, waste characterization, and dose assessments. A closer look at the raw data and interpretation of the results can reveal other problems that affect the data usability based on the project data quality objectives. The common problems include the following: incomplete sample dissolution, loss of volatile radionuclides during sample preparation, difficulties in aliquot subsampling during sample preparation, lack of a sample-specific chemical recovery mechanisms, use of an inappropriate sample-specific chemical recovery mechanism, not using enough of the sample-specific chemical recovery mechanism to obtain sufficient counting statistics for the recovery result, gamma-spectrometry misidentification, use of incorrect abundances or intensities, and incomplete separation of isotopes prior to alpha-spectroscopy analysis. These problems can result in the estimation or rejection of the results. Although most of these problems can be avoided, no improvement in their frequency has been noticed over time. This paper is written in an attempt to call attention to the typical problems in hopes that the contract laboratories as well as the government laboratories will review their practices to avoid these problems.