Authors:C Szőke, Z. Zsubori, I Pók, F. Rácz, O. Illés, and I. Szegedi
The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübn.), which is to be found almost universally in Europe and America, is an extremely important pest from the economic point of view. Losses caused by the pest range from 250-1000 kg/ha depending on the degree of infestation, the year and the yield averages. This fact justifies protection measures in Hungary on the whole of the seed production and sweetcorn fields and on 40% of the commercial maize sowing area. In addition to the direct damage, indirect losses are also considerable, since the injuries caused by the pest facilitate infection by Fusarium species. For the above reasons it is worth reviewing the habits of this pest, the extent of the economic loss resulting from the damage, and ways of controlling it.
Authors:Olivera Djuric, Ljiljana Markovic-Denic, Bojan Jovanovic, and Vesna Bumbasirevic
Emergency Department of Clinical Center of Serbia is a 308-bed tertiary teaching hospital and the sole referral and adult care trauma center serving the southern and central areas of Serbia. Two trauma-surgical ICUs
Bioassay group of Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research at Kalpakkam carries out routine surveillance of all radiation workers at the Centre by both whole-body counting and excreta analysis for assessing internal contamination. Various quality control measures adopted and experience gained in participating in inter-laboratory comparisons is highlighted.
Authors:O. Habuštová, L'. Weismann, M. Harangozó, and A. Bumbálová
The influence of copper on adults of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) was studied. The adults were treated by the contact fungicide Kuprikol 50, which is used to control down powder mildew (Phytophtora infestans de Bary). Copper content was determined by radio-nuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis using a 238Pu exciting source. The obtained results contribute to the control measures against the Colorado potato beetle and to the question of the resistance of Colorado potato beetle towards pyrethroide insecticides.
Uranium mining activities at Poços de Caldas plateau, Brazil, generated huge amounts of sulfidic waste rocks which were dumped into piles around the mine pit, requiring control measures to minimize the environmental impact. In this work, the sampling and the homogenization of these waste rocks are studied and their elemental analysis by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using normal (about 200 mg) and large (about 2 kg) samples. The results obtained allowed us to conclude that the waste rocks are extremely heterogeneous requiring even larger quantities of sample for its characterization.
Authors:Ildikó Tóth, József Rinfel, János Oberling, László Prugberger, and Lajos Nagy
A szigorú dohányzásellenes intézkedésekkel már számos országban sikerült hatékonyan csökkenteni a dohányzó emberek számát. Habár azonnali hatás nem volt érezhető, a dohányzás okozta egészségügyi kiadások jövőbeli csökkenése várható. Fontosnak tűnik az egészségügyi szakemberek dohányzással kapcsolatos szemlélete. Célkitűzés: A szerzők felmérésükben azt vizsgálták, hogyan viszonyulnak az orvostanhallgatók a dohányzáshoz, és felmérték a dohányzásellenes intézkedésekkel kapcsolatos attitűdjeiket. Módszerek: A felméréshez a Globális Egészségügyi Hallgatóknak szóló Felmérés kérdőívének magyar fordítását használták, és a szerzők a szabályozással kapcsolatos kérdéseket értékelték. A kérdőívet I. és V. évfolyamos orvostanhallgatók töltötték ki. A statisztikai analízist SPSS programmal végezték. Eredmények: Összesen 245 hallgató töltötte ki a kérdőívet. A hallgatók által jól ismert a dohányzás egészségkárosító hatása, mégis sok időt töltenek el dohányfüstös környezetben (68%-ban otthon, 85%-ban otthonukon kívül). Véleményük a dohányzásellenes szabályozásról elsősorban a jelenlegi törvénykezést tükrözi, így például csupán a hallgatók 43%-a tiltaná ki a dohányzást a diszkókból/bárokból. Következtetés: Az egészségügyi szakembereknek aktívabban kell részt venniük a megelőzésben és a dohányzásellenes szabályozásban. Az orvostanhallgatókat képezni kell ebben a témában. Orv. Hetil., 2011, 152, 828–833.
Authors:M. Javadzadeh, A. Sheikhi-Garjan, and A. Hosseini-Gharalari
The confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum, is a key pest of stored products such as wheat and flour. For decades, organophosphorus compounds, such as malathion and pirimiphos-methyl, have been applied against stored-product pests. In this research, susceptibility of different populations of T. confusum, collected from silos at different locations of Iran, against malathion (EC 57%), was studied in the laboratory, based on a completely randomized design. Based on pre-tests, the Bioassay Index Dose was estimated as 2 g a.i./m2. Out of 23 populations, 2 populations from Bandar-Abbas region were resistant populations against malathion (9.72% and 67.2% mortality), while one population from Khomein region was moderately resistant (86.08% mortality), and the rest of the population were susceptible to malathion (95.71% to 100% mortality). Therefore, in warm locations of Iran, where this pest has evolved resistance against malathion, other control measures shall be considered.
Authors:Jelena Petrović, Živoslav Grgić, Jasna Prodanov Radulović, Radomir Ratajac, Miroslav Urošević, Tatjana Pustahija, and Snežana Medić
Trichinellosis is one of the most important foodborne diseases in the Eastern European countries. The main objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiological patterns of trichinellosis outbreaks that occurred between 2005 and 2016 in Vojvodina, a northern province of the Republic of Serbia. The average incidence was 3.5 per 100,000 inhabitants. A total of 828 people acquired the infection. The disease occurred in all age groups, slightly more often in males, and quite frequently in a severe form considering the high share of hospitalised patients and the fatal outcome rate (41.6 ± 31.1% and 0.4%, respectively). Trichinella spiralis was confirmed as the causative agent in eight outbreaks. The outbreaks usually occurred among family members due to the consumption of pork or traditional pork products from not tested backyard pigs. Veterinary control measures and the education of consumers and farmers should be implemented to control this zoonotic disease.
The widespread use of digitally-controlled measuring and analytical devices and electronic data collectors, all equipped with microprocessors and linked to computers, has made it possible for on-line data collection to become a routine process. A rational combination of two up-to-date techniques, barcodes and digital balance terminals, linked to an average computer background (Kuti et al., 2003), has proved in practice to satisfy the criteria raised for the up-to-date processing of breeding data at low cost. This system is an example of how it is possible to reduce costs while processing data more rapidly and reliably and allowing human resources to be utilised more flexibly and efficiently. The modules (MvLabel, MvSticker, MvWeighing)of the program package developed in Martonvásár for the handling and analysis of the data from plant breeding and crop production experiments can also be used independently for the identification of experimental field units (spikes, rows, plots) and for the online handling of weight measurements and analytical data. They provide a simple solution for the design and printing of labels (self-adhesive or plastic) containing barcodes. They make it easier to retrieve the data recorded by digital balance terminals and store them on hard discs, while also helping to unify and synchronise the various parts of the system using barcode readers to identify the measurement data.
Authors:Hagen Frickmann, P. Gawlik, S. Crusius, and A. Podbielski
The objective of this paper was to investigate whether retrospective pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates at two-year intervals is suitable and sufficient to demonstrate changes in the clonal composition of MRSA isolates and to identify previously undetected local outbreaks. PFGE patterns of 400 MRSA isolates were collected between 2004 and 2008 at the University of Rostock Hospital in Germany, and were used to assess the prevalence of MRSA clones at different time points. Only minor changes were detected. The combined analysis of all isolates that were collected per year reduced the time needed to perform this laborious procedure. The retrospective identification of outbreaks may require shorter intervals. Improved infection prevention and control measures prevented further outbreaks in previously affected hospital departments. In conclusion, PGFE at two-year intervals is sufficient to detect changes in the clonal composition of local MRSA isolates. If time for identification is important during outbreak investigations, more rapid methods with a similarly high discriminatory power such as spa typing should be used.