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After the formation of the Chagatay and Jochi Uluses the local Mongol nobility was converted to Islam and assimilated by the local Kirghiz and Kipchak Turkic nomads. When these Uluses were disintegrated into smaller hordes (Özbeg, Nogay, Kazak, Kirghiz, etc.), the Turkic-speaking Muslim nobility ruled the newly-formed new nomadic states. The epic tradition of these nomads underwent fundamental changes, and the heroes of the epic songs became the historical or legendary founders of the tribes. When the Oirat Mongols and Jungars attacked their territories during in 16th–18th centuries the Buddhist Oirats became the major enemies of the Muslim Turks who called them Kalmak . But the meaning of Kalmak is broader in the epic tradition of these Turkic peoples: it can mean Non-Muslim or enemy of all kind. The present article analyses the historical and cultural background of the word Kalmak in written and oral sources.

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, Devin 1994 Islamization and Native Religion in the Golden Horde (Baba Tukles and the Conversion to Islam in Historical and Epic Tradition). University Park : The Pennsylvania State University Press . Divaev , Abubakr 1899 Iz oblasti

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1990 DeWeese, Devin (1994): Islamization and Native Religion in the Golden Horde, Baba Tükles and Conversion to Islam in Historical and Epic

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. DeWeese, A. D ( 1994 ): Islamization and Native Religion in the Golden Horde: Baba Tükles and Conversion to Islam in Historical and Epic Tradition . University Park , Pennsylvania

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. —. Saint Petersburg. (Reprint: Amsterdam 1970.) DeWeese, D. (1994): Islamization and Native Religion in the Golden Horde. Baba Tükles and Conversion to Islam in Historical and Epic Tradition . University Park, Pennsylvania

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Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Authors: Mikhail Kizilov, Nándor Erik Kovács, Bruno De Nicola, and Bettina Zeisler

Apostasy and Conversion to Islam in the Bahçesaray Court .’ Al-Qalam 8 : 159 – 167 . YILMAZ , Fehmi 2009 . ‘On Sekizinci Yüzyılın İkinci Yarısında Kırım’da Gayrimüslimler [Non-Muslims in the Crimea in the second half of the 18th century] .’ Osmanlı

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. Desmaisons , Petr I . 1970 2 . Histoire des Mongols et des Tatars par Aboul-Ghâzi Béhâdour Khân . Amsterdam: Philo Press . Deweese , Devin A . 1994 . Islamization and Native Religion in the Golden Horde. Baba Tükles and Conversion to Islam in

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Ildikó Ecsedy] . Budapest : Szte Btk Altajisztikai Tanszék, Elte Távol-Keleti Intézet . Deweese , Devin 1994 . Islamization and Native Religion in the Golden Horde: Baba Tükles and Conversion to Islam in Historical and Epic Tradition . University

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://foryourmarriage.org/catholic-marriage/church-teachings/interfaith-marriages/. Libdenberg, J. (2009): Interethnic Marriages and Conversion to Islam in Kota Bharu. In: Jones, Gavin W. — Leng, Chee Heng — Mohamad, Maznah (eds): Muslim Non-Muslim Marriage: Political and Cultural Contestations in Southeast Asia . Singapore, Iseas

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continued to be the issue of conversion. On the one hand, conversion to Islam as a recognized religion would have been legally possible, while the conversion to Catholicism from such a religion would have been more restricted in comparison to prior

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