The aim of this paper is to bring into discussion some data concerning early Christian inscriptions from the Iberian Peninsula on the differentiation of Vulgar Latin, focusing on the several methods and procedures of collecting data (in corpora and databases), and the interpretation as regards Latin dialectology. The low number of specific dialectal traits in early Christian funerary epigraphy contrasts with specific local features that can be found when we put the epigraphic texts into their social and cultural context. We may conclude that Latin dialectal evidence in Late Antiquity should be evaluated according to its context. We can understand both common and specific traits of the written language from this perspective.
Baroni , M. , Bernardini , S. , Ferraresi , A. & Zanchetta , E.
2009 . The WaCky Wide Web: A Collection of Very Large Linguistically Processed Web-crawled Corpora . Language Resources & Evaluation Vol. 43 . 209 – 226
We investigate the cost-effectiveness of special-purpose crawled corpora versus more focused corpora for automatic terminology extraction (ATE). Our focus is on medical terminology on heart failure for two languages, viz. English for which we have more web and specialized resources at our disposal and the less resourced Dutch. We show that, although term density in the dedicated corpora is larger for both languages, the potential for term extraction is higher in the crawled corpora than in the dedicated corpora. Furthermore, in a set of experiments in which we evaluate both types of corpora, while keeping size constant, we observe that more Gold Standard (GS) terms are covered by the “noisy” crawled corpus than with a dedicated corpus of the same size.
Irene Doval & Maria Teresa Sánches Nieto (eds): Parallel Corpora for Contrastive and Translation Studies. New Resources and Applications. Amsterdam / Philaldelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company 2019 . 301 pp. 978-90-272-0234-5 This
This paper tests Tirkkonen-Condit's (2004) Unique Item (UI) Hypothesis, which claims that UI are under-represented in translated texts and, on the other hand, Baker's (1993) Simplification Hypothesis and Halverson's (2003) Gravitational Pull Hypothesis, which predict over-representation of UI in translated texts. These hypotheses are contrasted by comparing the presence of English self-directed motion in English texts translated from Spanish from the Translational English Corpus (TEC, Baker 2003) and texts spontaneously produced in English from the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA, Davies 2008). Self-directed motion expressions are employed because of their linguistic divergences in English and Spanish. Twenty-eight English manner-of-motion verbs and eight English path-denoting satellites were selected to compare the number of self-directed motion expressions in the TEC and the COCA. This study yielded a total of 41,852 tokens from both corpora, that is, 209.2 expressions per million words in the TEC and 395.5 expressions per million words in the COCA. An independent samples t-test revealed that the number of expressions is significantly higher in the COCA (M = 3.32) than in the TEC (M = 1.76). A two-way ANOVA revealed significant main effects for Corpus and Lexical Frequency, but no Corpus*Lexical Frequency interaction effect was found. These results support Tirkkonen-Condit's UI Hypothesis and confirm that non-translated English is significantly richer in self-directed motion expressions than translated (from Spanish) English.
The activity of total monoamine oxidase (MAO) in the rat ovary and uterus fluctuates significantly under various physiological conditions. We analyzed total MAO activity in the hypothalamus, uterus and ovary in adult rats, having an extreme number of corpora lutea (hyperluteinized ovaries) resulting from the mechanical lesions in the posterior hypothalamic region of neonatal rats. Total MAO activity in the hypothalamus (30.21±1.53 pmol/mg tissue/min) and uterus (3.16±0.61 pmol/mg tissue/min) of rats with hyperluteinized ovaries did not show a significant difference as compared to that of intact controls (31.09±1.72 and 2.90 ± 0.40 pmol/mg tissue/min, respectively). In contrast, in the ovaries of hyperluteinized rats, total MAO activity (21.16±1.70 pmol/mg tissue/min) was significantly higher (p<0.01) when compared to that of intact controls (13.61±1.30 pmol/mg tissue/min). The increased MAO activity in the hyperluteinized ovaries may be attributed to the increased number of transformed and accumulated corpora lutea as a consequence of diminished luteolysis.
This paper proposes the use of ad hoc corpora in journalistic translation research (JTR), particularly to analyse content rather than language issues in news texts. To illustrate the validity of an ad hoc corpus as a research tool, this article will survey the articles reporting on the death and funeral of Margaret Thatcher, posted on the website of the BBC in English and Spanish. It will examine the approach to the news event on the two websites, and whether the news writers/translators of the Spanish texts undermine the dominant narrative found in the English articles. The corpus comprises the texts transedited into Spanish, the English texts, and English and Spanish co-texts that were posted during the same period of time. The results show that BBC Mundo writers/translators offer their readership a distinct approach to this particular news item, which emphasises the negative aspects of Margaret Thatcher's terms in office.
Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) may regulate ovarian physiology. In this study, the influence of IL-1β on secretory activity within the corpora lutea (CL) of cyclic and gravid pigs was determined in vitro during different stages of the CL lifespan, e.g. on Days 10–11, 12–13 and 15–16 of the oestrous cycle and pregnancy. IL-1β (10 ng/ml) increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretion from CL of the cyclic and gravid pigs during studied days of the oestrous cycle and pregnancy. Increase (P < 0.05) of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) in IL-1β-treated CL was demonstrated only on Days 10–11 of the oestrous cycle. More potent stimulatory effect of IL-1β on PGE2 than PGF2α secretion resulted in the enhancement of the PGE2:PGF2α ratio in cyclic and early pregnant CL. IL-1β increased (P < 0.05) progesterone (P4) secretion only in gravid CL and had no effect on oestradiol-17β (E2) release. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA was stimulated (P < 0.05) in IL-1β-treated cyclic and gravid CL. Expression of prostaglandin synthase mRNAs in response to IL-1β did not increase. In conclusion, IL-1β modulates PGE2, PGF2α and P4 secretion from porcine CL, depending on luteal stage and the surrounding hormonal milieu. The cytokine may act locally in porcine CL for luteotrophic support throughout the PGE2-mediated synthesis and secretion.
This study was conducted to investigate the interactions between growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) on progesterone (P4) secretion by porcine luteal cells cultured in vitro. Cells isolated from corpora lutea (CL) collected at three different periods of the luteal phase (CL1 - early luteal phase; CL2 - middle luteal phase and CL3 - late luteal phase) were incubated with different doses of GH (10, 100 or 200 ng/ml). After 48 h cultures were terminated and the media were frozen until further P4 concentration analysis. GH (100 ng/ml) increased P4 secretion by CL1 and CL2 and had no effect on CL3. In separate studies these cells were treated for 48 h with IGF-I alone or with GH combined with IGF-I. IGF-I alone increased basal P4 secretion only by cells collected from CL1 while concurrent treatment with GH had no effect on P4 secretion by any type of CL. To investigate the possible mechanism of GH and IGF-I mediated induction of P4 secretion, an inhibitory study was conducted. In this experiment, luteal cells collected from CL1 were cultured in the absence or presence of cycloheximide (an inhibitor of protein synthesis) or actinomycin D (an inhibitor of DNA transcription). Cycloheximide or actinomycin D completely blocked the stimulatory effect of both GH and IGF-I on P4 production but did not reduce basal progesterone secretion suggesting involvement of gene transcription and translation in the GH and IGF-I action on luteal cells. Additionally, the activity of 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3ß-HSD) under the influence of GH added alone or together with IGF was measured by the conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone. Stimulation of P4 secretion in P5-treated cells in GH-stimulated cultures was not observed, however, high stimulatory effect was noted in IGF-I treated cultures. In conclusion, the present studies indicate that there is direct and cycle stage dependent influence of GH and IGF-I on steroidogenesis in porcine luteal cells. It is suggested that both IGF and GH may exert some regulatory action during CL development in the pig.