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Chancery manuals, copybooks of correspondence, and other bound miscellanies of the classical Ottoman period are a rich, yet insufficiently known and underutilised resource for the study of political and cultural history. This essay describes the origins, types, contents and uses of these manuscript compilations, their cultural and historical significance, and some ideas concerning the circumstances of their production. Following a discussion of the potential of primary sources of this kind for political and cultural history, the essay concludes with an extensive annotated bibliography outlining the state of research on the subject.

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Topological sequential spaces are the fixed points of a Galois correspondence between collections of open sets and sequential convergence structures. The same procedure can be followed replacing open sets by other topological concepts, such as closure operators or (ultra)filter convergences. The fixed points of these other Galois correspondences are not topological spaces in general, but they can be embedded into the larger topological classes of pretopological, pseudotopological and convergence spaces. In this paper, we characterize the sequential convergences which are fixed points of these correspondences as well as their restrictions to topological spaces.

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Questions of source, style and interpretation have been central to the work of the Budapest Bartók Archives over its first half-century. The author looks at various issues of work genesis, structure, and interpretation, in works by Mahler and Riley, before considering the “definitive” state of Bartók’s Viola Concerto and the Sonata for Solo Violin, and the current availability of different editions of Bartók’s late works. He then outlines ways in which correspondence, both to and from Bartók, illuminates the rich and varied path from sketch to score to work première, and on to the earliest stages of performing interpretation. The paper concludes with seven examples where performance practice is enlightened by observations in Bartók’s correspondence: innovative work combination, comparative work quality or difficulty, compositional archetypes and models, processes of work revision, song-text translations, section or movement timings, and issues of correction versus revision.

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In principle, a scientometric transaction matrix can be modelled by assuming that the number of transactions is the result of independent row and column contributions. More often one is primarily interested in the cross-structural relations between the participating entities, whereas the row and column marginls are of lesser or no importance. The values of the residuals after fitting an independence model to a complete transaction matrix can be analyzed by correspondence analysis to investigate the structure of the transactions between the rows and columns, after correcting for their marginal frequencies. Recently a modification of correspondence analysis has been developed, quasi-correspondence analysis, which seems quite suitable for the analysis of citation-based transaction matrices which are incomplete or in which the incorporation of certain transactions may seem inappropriate. An illustration of both data analysis-techniques will be given using a journal-to-journal citation matrix.

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In this paper, we reanalyse the alternation in the Brazilian Portuguese verbal system called verbal vowel harmony (VH), which applies to verb stems in the second and third conjugations (e.g., bebér ‘to drink’ > bébo ‘I drink’; segír ‘to follow’ > sígo ‘I follow’). We pose the following questions concerning VH: (i) Is it a synchronic process? (ii) Does it exhibit paradigmatic effects? and (iii) How can it be described in Optimality Theory? To answer question (i), we present a corpus of BP dictionarized verbs in the third person and results from empirical tests that evaluate acceptability/productivity in the conjugation of pseudo-verbs. Concerning question (ii), we show that a paradigmatic correspondence between verbal forms in BP accounts for misapplication patterns. Answering question (iii), we offer a description of the process in line with Transderivational Correspondence Theory (Benua 1997).

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In the article the manuscript of the first Arabic prose work is being investigated. The author comes to the conclusion that it was written originally in Greek by somebody who was attached to one of the rhetoric schools in Syria. The Greek work contains the alleged correspondence between Aristotle and Alexander the Great. The Greek version of the novel in letters must be dated back to the sixth century A.D., thus the work is one of the last documents of the classical Greek literature. Through this novel one can get a better insight into the activity of the schools of rhetoric in the late Antiquity and the question of Pseudo-Aristotle's treatises.

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International collaboration is becoming an increasingly significant issue in science. During the last few years, a large number of bibliometric studies of co-authorships have been reported. Mostly, these studies have concentrated on country-to-country collaboration, revealing general patterns of interaction. In this study we analyze international collaborative patterns as indicated in the Indian publications by tracking out multi author publications as given in Science Citation Index (SCI) database. Correspondence analysis is used for analysis and interpretation of the results. According to correspondence analysis of the data set, Physics, Chemistry, Clinical medicine are the first, second and third largest subjects having international collaboration. USA, Italy, Germany, France, England are the top five countries with which India is collaborating. The data set shows an association between Physics and Italy, Switzerland, Algeria, Finland, South Korea, Russia, Netherlands contrasting an association between Biology & Biochemistry, Immunology, Ecology & Environment, Geosciences, Multidisciplinary subjects and England, Japan, Canada. It also shows an association between Agriculture and Philippines, Canada, Denmark in contrast to an association between Chemistry and Malaysia, Germany, France. An association between Clinical medicine, Astrophysics and England, Sweden, USA, New Zealand in contrast to an association between Agriculture and Canada, Philippines, Denmark is shown. An association between Engineering, Mathematics, Computer Science, Neuroscience and Singapore, Canada, USA in contrast to an association between Chemistry, Astrophysics and Malaysia, Spain is shown. This association of collaborating countries and disciplines almost tallies with the publication productivity of these countries in different disciplines.

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As a conductor, Hans Richter was a particularly important figure of late nineteenth-and early twentieth-century European concert and operatic life. Despite his significance, however, his correspondence remained mostly unpublished up to these days. The present publication makes accessible the original German text of Rich-ter’s 1871 autobiography as well as his letters written to his Budapest friends, Johann Nepomuk Dunkl and Edmund von Mihalovich, in the period between 1874 and 1899, kept today at the Library of the Liszt Academy of Music in Budapest.

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The paper claims that the Bulgarian tsar Simeon’s (893–927) relations to the highest authorities of the Byzantine State and Church can be characterized by parody. Simeon’s funny behaviour is reflected in his correspondence in Greek and it served as a cultural-diplomatic analogue to his military campaigns. For reasons of parody, the Bulgarian tsar uses quotations from the Gospels to give them twisted sense. This is the first manifestation of Old Bulgarian laughter which can be carefully compared to parodia sacra in Western Europe. However, after the death of Tsar Simeon, this laughter shortly disappeared leaving Bulgarian culture for a long time.

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