Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 42 items for :

  • "cost analysis" x
  • All content x
Clear All
Journal of Flow Chemistry
Authors: F. Benaskar, A. Ben-Abdelmoumen, N. G. Patil, E. V. Rebrov, J. Meuldijk, L. A. Hulshof, V. Hessel, U. Krtschil, and J. C. Schouten

Abstract

An extended cost study consisting of 14 process scenarios was carried out to envisage the cost impact of microprocessing and microwaves separately or in combination for two liquid-phase model reactions in fine-chemicals synthesis: (1) Ullmann C–O cross-coupling reaction and (2) the aspirin synthesis. The former, a Cu-catalyzed substitution reaction, was based on an experimental investigation, whereas the latter, a noncatalyzed aromatic esterification reaction, was based on literature data. The cost of 4-phenoxypyridine production, as a pharmaceutical intermediate in the synthesis of vancomycin or vancocin, was compared with that of the synthesis of aspirin, a key example of large-scale fine-chemical production plants. The operating costs in the Ullmann synthesis were found to be related to material-based process (reactant excess, pretreatment, and catalyst synthesis), whereas those in the aspirin synthesis appeared to be related to downstream-based process (workup, waste treatment). The impact of an integrated microwave heating and microprocessing system on profitability was demonstrated with respect to operational cost and chemical productivity. Different modes of microwave heating and catalyst supply were studied and compared with conventional oil-bath-heated systems in batch and continuous processes. The overall costs including profitability breakthrough for a competitive market price of product were obtained from various combinations of heating and processing. In case of the Ullmann synthesis, the CAPEX (capital expenditure) was negligible compared to the OPEX (operational expenditure), whereas in the aspirin synthesis, the CAPEX was found around 40%, both at a production scales of 1–10 kg/day using proposed upscale methods. The source of the catalyst strongly determined the profitability of a continuously operated Ullmann process due to its effect on the chemical performance. Higher energy efficiencies could be attained using single-mode microwave irradiation; however, the energy contribution to the overall cost was found to be negligible. Different scenarios provided a cost-feasible and profitable process; nevertheless, an integrated microwave heating and microflow processing led to a cost-efficient system using a micropacked-bed reactor in comparison to wall-coated microreactor, showing a profit margin of 20%.

Restricted access

The practical implementation of precision crop production nowadays is becoming more and more widespread. Numerous experiments and farmers’ practical experiences verify the positive impacts of precision nutrient supply on farming. Precision weed control started to spread later, partly due to technical difficulties, partly to the lack of necessary software support that was developed later. The introduction of a new technology requires complex farm-management decisions, including the consideration of economic correlations (costs-yield-income) as well as high-level skills and significant investments from the farmer. These investments can be returned from the income surplus realized through increasing yields and decreasing farming costs. Extra income can also come from the decreasing material costs which, however, do not necessarily compensate the extra costs of implementing the new technology and depends very much on the utilization of savings from different herbicide doses used for the treatment of plots, considering the soil qualities. This study, utilising the data of a technological experiment carried out in Hungary, presents the results of a stochastic simulation model developed with the adaptation of finite element method. The examination was executed at sub-plot level, dividing the plots into small parcels. Our aim was to examine the impact of precision nutrient application and differentiated spraying of herbicides on production costs and yield, as well as the impact of changes on gross margin (income) and the returns on technological development.

Restricted access

Abstract  

The purpose of this paper is to discuss, in general terms, evaluation issues related to government-sponsored research and to describe and critique the usefulness of economic performance measures for evaluating such activity. Herein is presented an overview of the economic justification for government-sponsored research and the rationale for its evaluation. Also, fundamental evaluation methods are described. The paper ends with a recommendation that benefit-cost analysis may be the most appropriate economic performance measure when evaluating government-sponsored research if used cautiously and with an understanding of its inherent subjectivity.

Restricted access

Bundesländern. http://www.dkgev.de/media/file/11986.DKG_Bestandsaufnahme_KH-Planung_Investitionsfinanzierung_030812.pdf 6 Csomós, Á.: Cost analysis in intensive care units

Restricted access

. ( 2006 ), Unit sizing and cost analysis of stand-alone hybrid wind/PV/fuel cell power generation systems . Renewable Energy , 31 ( 10 ), 1641 – 1656 . [4] Kuhn

Restricted access
Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Antal Tamás Zemplényi, László Mangel, Zoltán Kaló, Dóra Endrei, and Imre Boncz

Absztrakt

Bevezetés: A technológia fejlődése új lehetőségeket nyitott a prosztatadaganat sugárkezelése terén, ugyanakkor kevéssé ismert a korszerű technológia költsége. Célkitűzés: Jelen elemzés célja, hogy összehasonlítsa a háromdimenziós konformális sugárterápia, a normál- és hipofrakcionált intenzitásmodulált sugárterápia költségét lokalizált prosztatarákos betegek kezelésében. Módszer: A retrospektív költségelemzés egy hazai onkológiai centrum adatai alapján készült az egészségügyi szolgáltató szemszögéből. Az irradiáció időtartamát 20 beteg összesen 100 kezelési frakciójának egyedi mérése alapján határozták meg. Az egységköltségeket az intézmény kontrollingrendszere alapján számították ki. Eredmények: Egy frakció átlagos időtartama a hagyományos háromdimenziós konformális sugárterápia esetén 14,5 perc, intenzitásmodulált sugárterápia esetén képvezérelt eljárással 16,2 perc, míg képvezérelt eljárás nélkül 14 perc volt. A kezelés teljes költsége háromdimenziós konformális sugárterápia esetén 619 ezer forint, intenzitásmodulált sugárterápia esetén 933 ezer forint és hipofrakcionált intenzitásmodulált sugárterápia esetén 692 ezer forint volt. Következtetések: A már bizonyítottan költséghatékonyabb intenzitásmodulált és hipofrakcionált intenzitásmodulált sugárterápia alkalmazása nagyobb költséggel jár a szolgáltatók számára, ugyanakkor a jelenleg hatályos finanszírozás nem ösztönöz a hatékonyabb terápia alkalmazására. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(12), 461–468.

Restricted access

.-Gazdag, A.: Comparative cost analysis of renewable energy sources including environmental externalities, Energy and the Environment, Vol. I. /ed. by B. Frankovic/, Croatian Solar Energy Association, Opatija, 1996, ISBN 953-96054-6-6 pp. 53

Restricted access

Litman, T. (2002): Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates and Implications . Victoria, B.C., Canada: Victoria Transport Policy Institute. Litman T

Restricted access
Acta Alimentaria
Authors: B. Šimundić, G. Krešić, A. Živkovićb, and B. Medugorac

Arrow, J. K. J. & Cooper, M. L. (1996): Is there a role for benefit-cost analysis in environmental, health and safety regulation? Science , 272 , 221-222. Is there a role for benefit-cost

Restricted access

.J. Beyond the words. Communication and suggestion in medical practice 2011 Lang EV, Rosen, MP: Cost analysis of adjunct

Open access