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target ( Cryder et al. 2013 ). It was therefore hypothesized that a) fundraising runners who aim for a higher target sum will collect more donations. Furthermore, since long-distance running is a costly signal (and investment), we also hypothesized that b

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. H. Gintis E.A. Smith S.L. Bowles 2001 Cooperation and costly signaling

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Generosity seems to be a cross-culturally ubiquitous feature of life. Helping others is considered as a costly act through which the altruists gain popularity and reputation in their reference group and this elevated reputation will pay off for them in future social relationships. This costly signaling theory has been widely tested in pre-industrial societies. Our purpose was to examine if the assumptions of CST are verifiable in modern, industrial societies. Using a complex experimental procedure with four subsequent phases we could examine reputation-gaining in realistic conditions. We found that more people are willing to offer help to a charity organization when their group mates are aware of their altruistic intention than those whose offer was concealed from the rest of the group. In return, the offered charity service increased the altruist's reputation in the group; in the light of sociometric surveys they gained more popularity than the others. Finally, it turned out that whereas men are more likely to offer potentialhelp in the presence of others, women provide more actualhelp.

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Z. Kerekes 2010 Altruism towards strangers in need: costly signaling in an industrial society Evolution and Human Behavior 31 95

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Heroic rescuing behaviour is a male-typical trait in humans, and it is possible that life risking acts represent a costly signal, showing that a rescuing male has good underlying genetic quality. Previous research has shown that males with low status occupations are more frequent rescuers than males who have higher socio-economic statuses. This study looked at news archives of local papers in the UK in order to discover what kind of characteristics rescuers possess. It was found that males were highly more likely to rescue than females were, and that a typical rescuer was a low status male rescuing another male. Males with low socio-economic status were more likely to rescue in all the contexts (fire, drowning, violence and traffic accidents). Socio-economic status and heroism are discussed in relation to the evolutionary theory. It is suggested that heroism could be a condition dependent life history strategy and could be related to steep future discounting.

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Z. Kerekes 2010 Altruism towards strangers in need: Costly signaling in an industrial society Evolution and Human Behavior 31 95

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Are costly apologies universally perceived as being sincere?

A test of the costly apology-perceived sincerity relationship in seven countries

Journal of Evolutionary Psychology
Authors: Yohsuke Ohtsubo, Esuka Watanabe, Jiyoon Kim, John T. Kulas, Hamdi Muluk, Gabriela Nazar, Feixue Wang, and Jingyu Zhang

a costly signaling model of apology Evolution and Human Behavior 30 114 123 . J. L. Risen

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Costly signaling and cooperation Journal of Theoretical Biology 213 103 119 . M. Olson 1965

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. ( 2010 ): Altruism towards strangers in need: costly signaling in an industrial society . Evolution and Human Behavior 31 , 95 – 103 . 5. Christie , R. , Geis , F. ( 1970 ): Studies

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Journal of Evolutionary Psychology
Authors: Willem E. Frankenhuis, Ron Dotsch, Johan C. Karremans, and Daniël H. J. Wigboldus

The hunting handicap: Costly signaling in human foraging strategies Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 50 9 19 . A

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