Authors:Nádia Simões, Nuno Crespo, and José Castro Pinto
Based on a micro-level approach and using data from the European Working Conditions Survey, covering 27 countries, we analyse the determinants of job quality. With cluster analysis applied to 11 dimensional indices, we form three homogeneous country groups and identify, by estimating twice-censored Tobit models, the main determinant factors affecting the individual level of job quality in each group. We verify the relevance of variables related to worker characteristics, firm characteristics, and the country in which the individual works. Among worker characteristics, education and employment status are the factors with the highest impact on job quality, while the economic sector is the most important firm characteristic. The results suggest the existence of important differences among groups regarding the magnitude of the impact of some factors. The highest dissimilarities are found between the group with better jobs (Nordic countries plus Belgium) and the group with lower quality jobs (Central and Eastern European countries plus Portugal and Greece). Variables related to age, education, dimension of the firm, and economic sector are those in which more heterogeneity is found among the groups.
Authors:Csaba Makó, Miklós Illéssy, and András Borbély
A digitalizáció megjelenésével ismét felerősödtek a munkahely elvesztésével
kapcsolatos félelmek. Az EU-27 országaiban minden második munkavállaló jelentős
autonómiát és tanulást igénylő kreatív munkahelyen dolgozik, miközben
egynegyedük munkájára a rutinfeladatok ellátása a jellemző. Az előbbiek munkáját
kevésbé, az utóbbiakét viszont nagymértékben veszélyeztethetik a számítógépek.
Ugyanakkor jelentősek az országok közötti különbségek: a skandináv,
kontinentális és angolszász országokban a kreatív munkavégzés az EU-átlagnál
nagyobb arányban fordul elő, ennek fordítottja jellemző az EU mediterrán és
közép-kelet-európai országaira, ahol rutinfeladatokat képviselő taylori
munkahelyek az EU átlagnál nagyobb arányban fordulnak elő. Magyarország a
sereghajtók közé tartozik, és az elmúlt évek tendenciái sem kedvező
The study analyses the impacts of the financial and economic crisis on potential growth in the European Union. It identifies the main channels of impact mechanism and carries out quantitative estimations in order to reveal the medium and long-term trends. According to over findings the impacts of the crisis are significantly different in the main country-groups of the EU. The basic structural problem of the EU is considered the decreasing trend in potential growth which might be further strengthened through the lasting consequences of the crisis.
The analysis approaches satisfaction with work as affected by demographic and social characteristics as well as by labor market and labor organization position. Furthermore the impact of expectations to and evaluation of the job is also considered. The international variation in the explanatory mechanism of satisfaction with work is analyzed by comparing five groups of European societies. First, distinction is made between 'old' European market economies and 'new' post-socialist countries. Second, based on economic indicators, the first group of countries is divided into three subgroups: West (Center 1), Scandinavia (Center 2), and Periphery, while the second group of countries is divided into more developed and less developed transition societies. The ISSP 1997 Work Orientation Module data are used for the analysis. Only respondents in labor force are analyzed (N=11739). The paper presents descriptive statistics for the clusters of the countries as well as for the dependent and independent variables in the analysis. Then, ordered logit models are used to predicting satisfaction with work. The explanatory variables contain objective status indicators, subjective evaluation of the job, the country groups and interaction terms. Results reveal that both status indicators and attitudes toward the job are significant predictors of the general satisfaction in agreement with gender paradox, life cycle, reference-group and status discrepancy hypotheses. However, these explanatory mechanisms vary a lot by the groups of countries. If controlling for composition effects within these groups of countries, Scandinavia turns out to be a place with highest satisfaction and developed transition societies are characterized by the lowest satisfaction wit work.
over two consecutive periods. The results are shown in Table 1 in descending order by HiCi output % in 2000–2009. Table 2 shows countriesgrouped by HiCi output % for ≥1.5, ≥1.0, ≥0.5 and <0.5 % to compare the changes between two time periods
Section 4.4 , where I use AdjImp i,t as the dependent variable in the respective panel equation. Let us take a look at the annual average growth rates of AdjImp i,t for countrygroups. Fig. 2 shows that the core slightly increased its adjusted EMU
necessary to understand the relationship between foreign aid and growth in middle-income countries within the framework of the MIT. In this paper, we aim to contribute to the literature by focusing on this special countrygroup (middle-income countries) and
Authors:Mirjana Gligorić Matić, Biljana Jovanović Gavrilović, and Nenad Stanišić
negative coefficients indicate the convergence process in case of all nine LPI pillars and all three estimated models. Compared between two countrygroups, the convergence was higher among the Western European countries in case of Business Environment
Selected CountryGroups, 1980-2004” (XLS). Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy. July 31 2006.
Net Generation by Energy Source by Type of Producer, Energy Infirmation Administration