The study analyses the topography and the burial customs of the 11th–13th century graves excavated at Cluj-Mănăştur (Kolozsmonostor), together with their relationship to the settlement- and stone building remains of the site. It concludes how and how long could coexist from the 11th century onwards a county seat and a monastery surrounded by the same ramparts.
According to the evidence of linguistics, the Hungarians brought the knowledge of beekeeping with them to the Carpathian Basin. Beekeeping and the consumption of honey must have been a common practice in Csongrád (historically the county seat in the early Middle Ages), a settlement surrounded by water, as records show that in 1138 the people here were required to pay a tax in
(mead). In Turkish times, mid-16th-century
(taxation lists) provide evidence of beekeeping during that period. After the Turks were driven out of Hungary, a record dating from 1731 shows that as part of his economic organising activity the Hungarian landowner Sándor Károlyi wanted to make beekeeping a taxable activity.
, an 18th-century description by Mátyás Bél (minister of religion, teacher, historian), and the survey ordered in the time of Joseph II record the endowments for beekeeping (extensive natural stretches of water and melliferous wildflowers) as well as the man-made conditions (cultivated melliferous plants such as tobacco, grapevines, fruit trees). 19th-century sources also confirm the existence of local beekeeping. Material collected orally in 2004 shows that folk and peasant beekeeping was practised at several places in the area in the late 19th and the 20th centuries. In addition to establishing the locations, in a few places the researchers also obtained a description of the place occupied by beekeeping in the peasant economy. The oral data record the traces of beekeeping in live trees and of harvesting honey in the wild, the process of transition from skep to box hive in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the various types of hives, the method of making mead and the occasions on which honey was eaten.
Authors:Tamás Pándics, Eszter Róka, Bernadett Khayer, Zoltán Kis, Luca Bella Kovács, Nóra Magyar, Tibor Málnási, Orsolya Oravecz, Bernadett Pályi, Eszter Schuler, and Márta Vargha
Összefoglaló. A szennyvízalapú epidemiológia módszere a jelenlegi
világjárványban egyre inkább előtérbe kerül. Mivel a szennyvízhálózatot szinte
mindenki használja, ezzel a módszerrel gyorsan és olcsón lehet reprezentatív
egészségügyi információhoz jutni, az így keletkező adatok pedig támogatást és
visszajelzést nyújthatnak a döntéshozatalban. A Nemzeti Népegészségügyi Központ
2020 júniusa óta működteti a COVID–19 előrejelző rendszert. A mintavételek
hetente történnek Budapest három szennyvíztisztítójából, valamint a
megyeszékhelyekről. A kapott adatok hazánkban is előrejelzik az esetszám
alakulását, az eredmények gyors kommunikációja pedig lehetővé teszi a
járványhelyzetre történő felkészülést. A szennyvízalapú epidemiológia
alkalmazása a jövőben más területeken is megfontolandó hazánkban is.
Summary. Wastewater based epidemiology (WBE) is an emerging method
in the current COVID-19 pandemic. Since almost everyone uses the sewerage
system, wastewater is technically a composite sample representing the entire
population of the area serviced by a wastewater plant. This community sample
contains pathogens and compounds excreted by the human body through feces or
urine, and can be used to obtain information on the health status of the
community. It was successfully used previously for confirming the eradication of
poliovirus and tracking legal and illegal drug consumption.
The etiological agent of COVID-19, the SARS-CoV-2 virus is an enveloped, single
strand RNA coronavirus. Although it is a respiratory virus, it is also shed in
feces both in symptomatic and asymptomatic infections. Wastewater therefore can
be used to estimate outbreak trends and support outbreak management.
Wastewater monitoring efforts in Hungary started in June 2020, first in Budapest,
then gradually extended to a national surveillance system. Weekly samples are
collected in the three wastewater treatment plants servicing Budapest, and from
every county seat. The analyzed 22 samples represent approximately 40 % of the
population. Raw sewage samples are centrifuged to remove the debris and
concentrated by membrane ultrafiltration. RNA is extracted from the concentrate
and SARS-CoV-2 is quantified by RT-qPCR. Results are normalized to
Enterococcus counts to correct for the bias of dilution
The first results in June reflected the decline of the first wave of the
outbreak. During the summer, viral RNA concentrations were low, mainly below the
limit of detection. The increase of RNA in the sewage preceded the resurge of
cases by 2 weeks. Trends of viral concentration followed the same pattern as the
number of infections in the second and third wave. SARS-CoV in sewage shows
statistically significant association with the number of new cases in the
following weeks, thus it can be used as an early warning system.
Results are communicated weekly to the governance board responsible for outbreak
management, or more frequently in case of outstanding results or when it is
necessary for decision support. Weekly information is also made available to the
public. To inform the public, concentration categories (low, medium, elevated
and high) were defined, representing orders of magnitude of the viral RNA
concentration. Trends (increasing, stagnating or decreasing) are also
The establishment of a long-term wastewater surveillance system would provide an
opportunity for early recognition of future emerging infections, tracking
seasonal influenza, drug use or even the detection of certain bioterror attacks.
It would be an important addition to maintaining the health and safety of the
Authors:István Szűcs, Andrea Bauerné Gáthy, Angéla Soltész, and Laura Mihály-Karnai
respondents reflects the overall population, with 223 men (44.6%) and 277 (55.4%) women. Most respondents live in the countyseat (45.2%). In terms of subjective income status, the majority of respondents said they were in the higher income category (37
Authors:Karolina Eszter Kovacs and Beata Erika Nagy
them are female. The mean age of the sample is 16.44 years ( SD = 1,122). About 12.6% of the participants live in Budapest, 25.6% of them live in countyseats, 10.1% of them in other big cities, 28.3% of them in small cities, 22.5% of them in villages
the age of 14 by clusters and find significant differences ( Table 3 ). Table 3. Place of permanent residence at the age of 14 by clusters of motives behind further studies (%) a Countyseat or capital Small town Village Total Capital increasing 31% 34
variable to a 3-category variable: village, small town and big town. Fourty three percentageof the respondents live in the countyseat and in the capital, 40% in small town and 17% in village. We have measured the supply of cultural capital in several ways
Consecration of a cross in the vineyards on a Sunday afternoon. Sióagárd (Tolna county) 1987. (Photo: Ágnes Fülemile)
Women from Bogyiszló selling their goods at the weekly market of the countyseat, Szekszárd, 1987. (Tolna
(the recorder with 2772 workers was at this time the Matyó co-operative) ( Kerekes 2014 :465–467). The Folk Arts and Cottage Industry Company operated business premises at 5 locations in Budapest alone and at 13 countyseats in the year of 1953 (as well