Authors:Ákos Ferencz, Henrietta Bolló, István Hidegkuti, and Anita Szemán-Nagy
A muvészek és a pszichiátriai betegek egyaránt osztoznak abban a kivételes adottságban, hogy a világot a szokásostól eltéro módon látják. A kreativitás pszichopatológiával való kapcsolatának kutatása a mentális zavarok mint diagnosztikus kategóriák felol a kognitív és affektív fenotípusok felé tolódik. Egyes, pszichiátriai zavarokra is jellemzo vonások — sokszor enyhébb formában és több más tényezo együttállása esetén — a kreativitás folyamatában is kulcsszerepet játszanak, így adaptívak lehetnek.Munkánk célja a kreativitás és a pszichopatológiák irodalmának áttekintése. A kreativitással kapcsolatos alapfogalmak tisztázása után ismertetjük a kreatív személyiség jellemzoit. A pszichopatológiai vonatkozások között részletesen tárgyaljuk a szkizotípiával és a diszszociatív jelenségekkel, ezen belül az abszorpcióval való összefüggéseket. Végül néhány általános szempontot fogalmazunk meg a kreativitás kutatásával kapcsolatban.
What brings together Daniel Defoe, Charles Dickens, Vsevolod Krestovsky, Nikolai Chernyshevsky, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Аlexander Kuprin, George Bernard Shaw, and Аstrid Lindgren, i.e. writers from different countries and belonging to different epochs? In their creative work, they all used stenography, or rapid writing, permitting a person to listen to true speech and record it simultaneously.
This paper discloses the role of stenography in literary activities of European and Russian writers in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Some researchers believe that the first ties between shorthand and literature appeared in the days of Shakespeare when the playwright's competitors used shorthand to put down the texts of his plays. Others have convincingly refuted this viewpoint, proving that such records never existed. The most famous English novelist in the 17th and 18th centuries Daniel Defoe can be considered one of the first writers who used shorthand in his literary work. The writers mastering the art of shorthand writing such as Defoe, Dickens, and Lindgren were popular in various professional spheres (among others, the secret service, journalism, and secretarial service) where they successfully applied their skills in shorthand writing.
Stenography was an integral part of a creative process of the authors who resorted to it (Dostoevsky, Krestovsky, Shaw, and Lindgren). It economized their time and efforts, saved them from poverty and from the terms of enslavement stipulated in the contracts between writers and publishers. It is mainly thanks to stenography that their works became renowned all over the world. If Charles Dickens called himself “the best writer-stenographer” of the 19th century, F. M. Dostoevsky became a great admirer of the “high art” of shorthand. He was the second writer in Russia (following V. Krestovsky), who applied shorthand writing in his literary work but the only one in the world literature for whom stenography became something more than just shorthand. This art modified and enriched the model of his creative process not for a while but for life, and it had an influence on the poetics of his novels and the story A Gentle Creature, and led to changes in the writer's private life. In the course of the years of the marriage of Dostoevsky and his stenographer Anna Snitkina, the author's artistic talent came to the peak. The largest and most important part of his literary writings was created in that period.
As a matter of fact, having become the “photograph” of live speech two centuries ago, shorthand made a revolution in the world, and became art and science for people. However, its history did not turn to be everlasting. In the 21st century, the art of shorthand writing is on the edge of disappearing and in deep crisis. The author of the paper touches upon the problem of revival of social interest in stenography and its maintenance as an art. Archival collections in Europe and Russia contain numerous documents written in short-hand by means of various shorthand systems. If humanity does not study shorthand and loses the ability to read verbatim records, the content of these documents will be hidden for us forever.
My paper aims at examining the poetics of Sergei Dovlatov’s novel Sanctuary, with particular emphasis on motivic repetitions and the Pushkinian intertexts embedded in the novel. It reveals a complex relationship linking Dovlatov the author, Alikhanov the narrator, Alikhanov the protagonist and the narrative itself to Pushkin’s life, persona, his texts and language. By referring to two Pushkinian intertexts, I argue that Alikhanov’s understanding of Pushkin develops simultaneously as his relationship to his wife Tanya progressively becomes a text. Alikhanov recreates Pushkin’s ars poetica for himself by aphoristically identifying the poet with an indifferent nature. The fictional equivalent of this will be Tanya, whom Alikhanov the narrator describes with the attributes of indifference. This motif of indifferent nature establishes a connection between Pushkin’s lyrics and Dovlatov’s text. Pushkin, the greatest cultural subject in Russia’s collective memory, is salvaged by Dovlatov’s text through Alikhanov’s Tanya as well as the narrator’s own personal history; a history that necessarily evolves from Pushkin. Alikhanov the protagonist and Alikhanov the narrator interpret Pushkin in the context of their own crucial, existential questions, the questions of amorality and destiny, and the possibilities of late modern-postmodern prose writing.
Creative memory is the dominant feature in the writing process of Nabokov’s prose in general, and that of the novel The Gift in particular. Mnemosyna in Nabokov’s word has many faces, such as memory concrete, creative recollection, mystic-transcendental as well as cultural-reminiscential memory. The concrete memory of an event produces the illusion of lifelikeness; the rest of Mnemosyna’s hypostases weave a magic fabric of artistic endeavour. It can be observed in the specific style of Nabokov’s prose: loyalty to reality of life blended organically with fantasy and irrational-transcendental epiphanies of the artist-demiurge.
It is shown that characterizing the creative activity by the aha! concept the creative processes can be described as singular points of a smooth surface. The cusp catastrophe from the theory of RenéThom is used to describe and to estimate quantitatively the creative process. The behaviour parameter is the flux of empirical laws and the control parameters are the experimental and the theoretical effort. The theoretical effort is the bifurcation parameter.
The paper presents the results of a comprehensive study on Anna Dostoevskaja’s role in the creative process of Fyodor Dostoevsky. She was not only the wife of the great writer but a professional shorthand writer and a copyist as well. At the time of writing his novel The Gambler, Dostoevsky and his assistant worked out a model of creativity in which priority was given to stenographic writing that could trace and fix the writer’s exciting ideas. During the subsequent work on his literary writings including e.g. The Great Pentateuch, this model of the creative process remained unaltered. Dostoevsky’s wife was his Muse, co-thinker, interlocutor, the first listener and the first critic of his creations, and the co-author of burlesque verses. Her impressions, stories, and their private conversations were used by Dostoevsky in his literary works. Several years of joint creative work with the brilliant writer developed in his assistant literary skills thanks to which she wrote masterful memoirs that obtained worldwide recognition. Dostoevsky appreciated his wife’s contribution to his literary activity thereby dedicating his greatest novel The Brothers Karamazov to her.
In this paper, international team research (ITR) is discussed as an object for measurement, systems analysis, and management. The paper is intended as a contribution to the development of a problem orientation in scientometrics. In the authors' view, scientometric studies can help solve the problem of efficient ITR in several ways-for instance, by identifying needed improvements in (a) international scientific communication in general, (b) scientific interactions within and among research teams as part of the creative process, and (c) the overall international usage of existing scientific knowledge. The paper discusses the machinery of ITR, models of scientific communication, and some original experience in using computers and telecommunications as tools for scientific interaction. All of these are potential objects for scientometric investigation. The paper itself performs some first steps in obtaining economic parameters for the different forms of international team research.
Translator reflections, whether concurrent or retrospective, and if the latter, supported by drafts and editorial feedback, and dealing with problems encountered and solutions arrived at in personal creative translation processes are one way into the “labyrinth” (Krings 2005) of translatorial decision-making, with the translators themselves as guides. This article presents and discusses retrospective reflections by two expert literary translators translating English classics into Finnish and by one novice working on his first book-length translation. The reflections consist of the M.A. theses of the three translators, done in 2002 and 2008 and available online. Each of the translators analyses stages of a past or on-going translation project that resulted in a published target text. The focus of the analyses is on solving specific problems; this is further linked to discussions of individual aims and translation philosophies. The translators were motivated to write at length on their own creative processes both to share their experiences with other translators and to stimulate exchange of views between translators and researchers.
In spite of his mistrust in giving public explanations about his compositions, Bartók worked with great care on what we may call the narrative of a piece - the “spirit of the work” in his phrasing (spirit in the sense of the German Geist, the meaning, the characteristic quality). His “plans were concerned with the spirit of the new work and with technical problems (for instance, formal structure involved by the spirit of the work)” (Harvard Lectures, 1943). The best source to understand the narrative of multi-movement Bartók works is a close study of the creative process, primarily the sketches and the draft. The genesis of the Violin Concerto (1937-1938) reveals that to Zoltán Székely's request in 1936 Bartók first proposed a one-movement Konzertstück in variation form, i.e. the second movement. In the next step a full-size sonata-form piece emerging from the Tempo di verbunkos opening theme (as Bartók identified its character) of the present first movement could also have been an alternative one-movement Konzertstück of considerable size. Thus Bartók created two independent narratives: one for a fascinating variation, another for a big sonata-form movement written in a warmly melodic style with a special strategy of variations of the themes. Finally, because his violinist was expecting a regular three-movement concerto, by the addition of a finale he fulfilled the commission.