Aleinikov, A. G. (2002): Novology, the Science of Newness, for Creativity and Innovation Research. In: Aleinikov, A. (ed.): The Future of Creativity . Bensenville, IL: Scholastic Testing Services, Inc., pp. 113
Creativity may be a
trait, a state or just a process defined by its products. It can be contrasted
with certain cognitive activities that are not ordinarily creative, such as
problem-solving, deduction, induction, learning, imitation, trial-and-error, heuristics
and “abduction”, however, all of these can be done creatively too. There are
four kinds of theories, attributing creativity respectively to (1) method, (2)
“memory”(innate structure), (3) magic or (4) mutation. These theories variously
emphasize the role of an unconscious mind, innate constraints, analogy,
aesthetics, anomalies, formal constraints, serendipity, mental analogs,
heuristic strategies, improvisatory performance and cumulative collaboration.
There is some virtue in each, but the best model is still the one implicit in
Pasteur's dictum: “Chance favors the prepared mind.”And because the exercise
and even the definition of creativity requires constraints, it is unlikely that
“creativity training”or an emphasis on freedom in education can play a
productive role in this preparation.
, artistic and economic domains largely depends on the creative élan of knowledge communities to attract new talents and to innovate. The centrality of creativity as the engine of social and scientific progress is witnessed by the plethora of research
Comparing with the population, many Hungarians achieved outstanding success in natural sciences in the 20th century. From this fact, the conclusion can be drawn that Hungarians are very creative. In analyzing this conclusion, a simple general model of creativity is used which distinguishes between the approaches of the genious theory and Zeitgeist theory. By applying the Zeitgeist theory, the paper concludes that some elements of the Hungarian culture significantly contributed to the success of the Hungarian scientists, although all of them left Hungary at a certain point of their career. Migration was a key element of their success because they could find relevant problems and meritocratic scientific community in the scientific centers.