The essay surveys Hungarian higher educational reform in a historical perspective Higher education is a special branch of public administration, where investment to human capital is of corollary importance even if the educational, research and fiscal autonomy of the given institutions is fully respected. The author investigates the legal aspects of how government oversight and supervision (as envisaged in the communist model) has been dismantled over the past 25 years in Hungary. There is no doubt: with the development of institutional autonomy, state subsidies decline and higher educational institutions need to make an increasing effort to simultaneously maintain financial stability, meet market demands and reverse the current trend of deterioration regarding the quality of education. It is for this reason that the negotiations between higher educational institutions and the state must remain within the legal frameworks so that government supervision will not transform into total neglection.
Research to date has focused mainly on the soft budget constraint syndrome in the corporate sector and in the credit system. This article concentrates on the hospital sector. It describes the motivations and the contradictory nature of the behaviour of the patient, the physician, the hospital director, the politician and the hospital owner. The motivations explain the reasons behind the strong inclination to overspend and the tendency of softening budgetary limits. The burden of overspending and debt is pushed upward at each level of the decision-making and financing processes. This article covers the relationship between the various ownership types (state, non-profit and for-profit non-state ownership types) and the soft budget constraint syndrome. Finally, it looks at the phenomenon from normative aspects: the favourable and unfavourable consequences of the hardening of the budgetary limit and how normative dilemmas are reflected in the minds of the participants of the events.
homogeneous nation-state at any price. Another frightening new development is the so-called Social CreditSystem, de facto , a blacklist. By the end of 2020, it was intended to standardize and centralize administrative assessments of citizens' and businesses
Authors:Zsuzsanna Demeter-Karászi, Katalin Pallay, and Dorina Anna Tóth
requests are handled by the dean. In the case of reenrollment, students fall into the full tuition category ( Section 42.b ).
As with most institutions, the structure of the course is based on the academic creditsystem. Student status is also
contributors to individual papers continues to increase, science's creditsystem is under pressure to evolve (Greene 2007 ). Main methods to quantify co-author contributions are investigated for promoting better consideration of author rank as following (Van
Authors:Judit Váradi, Tímea Szűcs, Mária Strenáčiková, and Mária Strenáčiková
. (Bachelor), Mgr. art. (Master of Arts), and ArtD. (Doctor of Arts) are given to the students. The core instrument of organizing and recording a study is a creditsystem that is consistent with the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS). Full
-profit Platforms . Sociology Compass 11 ( 8 ): 1 – 22 . 10.1111/soc4.12493 Schraven , J. ( 2001 ): Mutual CreditSystems and the Commons Problem: Why Community Currency Systems such as LETS Need Not Collapse Under Opportunistic Behaviour . International
just briefly refer to the “Social CreditSystem” that monitors the behaviour of individuals and companies, providing information about the trustworthiness, compliance with laws and legal violations. In addition to the economic and social use, AI can