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The central effect of globalization is cultural convergence. The notion of “cultural creolization,” amplified from creole linguistics, offers a model wherewith to understand the cultural convergences of Europe and the rest of the postmodern world. Creolization, like diaspora, is a word with a history that is relevant to cultural analysis. Despite the claims of other terms like acculturation, transculturation, mixing, and hybridization, I advocate creolization to remind ethnologists of the decisive power differences that are always present when cultures converge. Creolization also denotes the creation of something discontinuous and new, which could not have been predicted from its origins. I sketch the relation of this concept to history, sociolinguistics, communication theory, anthropology, and religious studies, in the light of definitive linguistic research.

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genetically. 1 After a short discussion of genetic debates on the emergence of creole vernaculars and their long- lasting exclusion from genetic affiliation, it will be proposed that they be considered as any other vernacular regardless of the socio

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Arends, J., Muysken, P. and Smith, N. (eds) (1995): Pidgins and Creoles: An Introduction. John Benjamins, Amsterdam. Pidgins and Creoles: An Introduction

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Intercultural communication gives rise to the development of new text types and genres. Particular stages of this development can be described as hybridisa-tion. These are the stages at which the new text types and genres are not yet fully established themselves as forms of communication in a socio-cultural setting: they manifest linguistic and rhetorical features which are felt to be foreign. Hybridisation can be seen as a process comparable to pidginisation: while pidginisation in the course of time may result in the emergence of new languages, i.e., creoles, hybridisation may result in the emergence of new domestic text types and genres. Thus the hybrid condition is transitory by definition. The paper will illustrate this process with reference to EU grant applications.

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As a starting point of this study, we suppose that verbality and the use of written records come across in a different way in the francophone or the so-called post-colonial literature than, for instance, in the European literature, in which it has a longer tradition. To establish the truth of the thesis and to show the typical features, we have chosen two novels, one is by Patrick Chamoiseau, the other is by Fouad Laroui. The first one is linked to creole traditions, the latter one to Arabic- Moroccan traditions but both of them use the genre of the (post)-modern novel. The paper, on one hand, reveals the manner of verbality, embedded into the text, on the other hand, it shows the general structures, hidden under the surface like for example the child's path towards the school, i.e., towards knowledge, or the otherness of the home-comer compared to the ones who stayed at home. Nevertheless, the key point of the interpretation of both novels is their relationship to the French culture and language which in both cases is simply an inevitable fact, but nowadays this fact does not raise any difficulties in forming an independent identity or applying post-modern discourses in their own contexts.

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. 1982 . The evolution of Early Standard English: The creolization hypothesis . Studia Anglica Posnaniensia 14 . 69 – 85 . Thomason, Sarah

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. Henri , Fabiola . 2012 . ‘attenuative verbal reduplication in Mauritian: A morpho-semantic approach . In E. O. Aboh , N. Smith and A. Zribi-Hertz (eds.) The morphosyntax of reiteration in Creole and Non-Creole languages . Amsterdam

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. 2009 . Word-formation and creolisation: The case of Early Sranan . Berlin & New York , Mouton de Gruyter . Bresnan , Joan W. and Sam A. Mchombo . 1995 . The lexical integrity

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. Variation across speech and writing . Cambridge : Cambridge University Press . Bickerton , Derek . 1974 . Creolization, linguistic universals, natural semantax and the brain

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. Thomason , Sarah Grey and Terrence Kaufman 1988 . Language Contact, Creolization, and Genetic Linguistics

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