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2004 23 531 537 Dill-Macky, R., Jones, R.K. 2000. The effect of previous crop residues and tillage on Fusarium head

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De Neve S, Hofman G, 1998. N mineralization and nitrate leaching from vegetable crop residues under field conditions: a model evaluation. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 30, 2067

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Anonymous. 1991. Conservation in the 1990 Farm Bill. USDA FACTA 2. Dill-Macky, R., Jones, R.K. 2000. The effect of previous crop residues and tillage on Fusarium head blight of wheat

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1 16 Aulakh, M. S., Khera, T. S., Doran, J. W., Bronson, K. F. (2001): Managing crop residue with green manure, urea and tillage in rice-wheat rotation. Soil Sci. Soc. Am

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760 766 Dill-Macky, R. and Jones, R. K. 2000. The effect of previous crop residues and tillage on Fusarium head blight of wheat. Plant Dis. 84

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Összefoglalás

Kutatómunkánk elsődleges célja a repce és napraforgó tarlómaradvány N-tartalmának Magyarországra jellemző reprezentatív értékeinek meghatározása volt az országos statisztikai termésadatok és a növényminták N-tartalmának laboratóriumi mérése alapján. Továbbá összefüggést kerestünk a talaj és a növény N-tartalma között.

Vizsgálataink során egész Magyarországot reprezentáló mintavételt végeztünk repce és napraforgó állományokból, 126 növény- és mintegy 70 talajmintát gyűjtöttünk be, melyek N-tartalmát laboratóriumban határoztuk meg.

Kiszámoltuk a két növény országos termésátlagával keletkező tarlómaradvány mennyiségét és a mért N-tartalom értékek alapján megbecsültük a tarlómaradványok N-tartalmát. Összefüggést mutattunk ki a talaj és a növény N-tartalma között. Esettanulmány jeleggel kiszámítottuk egy olyan terület N-mérlegét, amelyre vonatkozóan rendelkezésre áltak a számításhoz szükséges adatok.

Eredményeink legfőbb gyakorlati vonatkozása, hogy a növényi maradványok felszecskázása és talajba dolgozása útján visszapótolt N mennyiségének meghatározása hosszabb távon hozzájárulhat a növénytáplálás költségeinek csökkentéséhez, illetve a természeti erőforrásokkal való takarékosabb gazdálkodáshoz.

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large-pot model experiments were conducted with maize under greenhouse conditions with the aim of studying the effect of different N fertiliser forms, water supplies and crop residues on the nitrogenous gas production in the rooting zone. Nitrogen fertiliser was applied in the form of KNO3 or NH4Cl. The experiment was done at two soil moisture levels, with or without the incorporation of maize crop residues into the soil, and with or without test plants. Gas traps were placed in the pots at a soil depth of 20 cm. During the growing season, the trapped soil air was analysed for NOx, N2O and N2. Practically the same N amounts evolved in the soil air with both chemical forms of N fertiliser at both soil moisture levels. expressed as a percentage of fertiliser N, the total amount of gaseous N evolved averaged 12.8% and 12.9% in the planted, and 23.8% and 24.3% in the unplanted pots with KNO3 and NH4Cl fertiliser, respectively. Higher soil moisture and the incorporation of crop residues resulted in higher NOx-N and N2O-N ratios within the total gaseous N evolved in the rooting zone.

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Soil management practices that utilize organic matter have great potential to increase productivity in sub-Saharan Africa. Field studies were carried out between September 1995 and August 1998 to determine the effects of three leguminous crop species: velvet bean ( Mucuna pruriens var. utilis ), groundnut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) and cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp), and inorganic fertilizer on the soil properties and succeeding maize grain yield when grown in rotation on a sandy soil classified as Haplic Lixisol in the forest-savannah transition zone of Ghana. The legumes were established in the minor seasons and maize in all the plots in the major cropping seasons. A 2 × 3 factorial design laid out in a randomized complete block was used. The main plots consisted of three leguminous crop residues and the sub-plots of two fertilizer levels (0 and 45 kg N ha −1 , 19 kg P ha −1 , 19 kg K ha −1 ). The control consisted of maize following maize with the recommended fertilizer rate (90 kg N ha −1 , 37 kg P ha −1 , 37 kg K ha −1 ). On average the Mucuna plots added 4.0 t ha −1 of crop residue to the soil in a season and cowpea 1.0 t ha −1 . The preceding crops had little effect on the soil properties. Leaf area index, total dry matter and maize grain yields were significantly affected by fertilizer. The best maize grain yield (6787 kg ha −1 ) was recorded in the first year on Mucuna plots with half the recommended rate of fertilizer. The cropping sequence with Mucuna residue was the most efficient. The gap in maize grain yield between the fertilized and unfertilized treatments widened each successive year. The interaction between organic matter and fertilizer may have been limited due to the surface application of the organic residue.

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residues and tillage on Fusarium head blight of wheat. Plant Disease 84 :71–76. Jones R.K. The effect of previous crop residues and tillage on Fusarium head blight of wheat

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