Authors:János Lazányi, J. Loch, and I. Jászberényi
Current concerns about
soil and water quality deterioration, limited possibility of fossil fuels, loss
of biodiversity, and in general the viability of rural communities urge to work
out methods of sustainable agriculture in the Nyírség region of Hungary. Sustainable
agriculture seeks solutions for environmental, economic and agricultural
problems at the same time. The aim is to develop new production methods which
provide the protection of nature. In sustainable agricultural systems the
management of organic matters and, more widely, the whole nutrient management
are based on the total self-sufficiency of the farm. The entire cycle of
organic matter production and decomposition takes place within the farm
boundaries and makes the farm an actual biological system. The rate of
metabolism and the organic matter cycle are characteristic features of each
farm and define their activity for a long time. Present investigation
conducted in Westsik's crop rotation experiment has found a highly significant
correlation between organic nitrogen extracted by 0.01
solution and potato yield. It has shown that soil organic nitrogen extracted by
solution is a reliable indicator of nitrogen
available for mineralization during the growing season. When precise nitrogen
fertilizer recommendations are required, the method can supply additional
information for environmentally friendly, sustainable agriculture.
Berzsenyi, Z., Győrffy, B., Dang, Q. L. (2000): Effect of croprotation and fertilisation on maize and wheat yields and yield stability in a long-term experiment.
Eur. J. Agron.
Dang Q. L
Soil water balance was studied in a 25-year-old experiment, on chernozem soil, in different crop-rotation systems (mono-, bi- and triculture) in dry (2007) and rainy (2008) seasons, in maize production. Soil water deficit values in maize production were much lower in 2008 than in 2007 in non-irrigated and irrigated plots of three crop rotation systems because of favourable precipitation supply. We found difference between the water deficit values of two irrigation treatments. We measured lower values in irrigated plots of three crop-rotation systems before sowing: non-irrigated plots in monoculture 105 mm, in biculture 101 mm, in triculture 121 mm and irrigated plots in monoculture 90 mm, in biculture 91 mm, in triculture 111 mm. Soil waterstock started to decrease with the rise in average temperature and, despite an increase in precipitation quantity, we calculated higher water deficit values. Precipitation in August and the high average temperature intensified the water deficit. Water deficit showed its highest values in early September. We examined the water balance of the soil profile in 0–2.0 m and we concluded that the water deficit of the 0.8–1.2 m soil layers was most intensive in both non-irrigated and irrigated treatments, because of significant root mass. Our results showed that irrigation had a more important influence on the yield in a dry cropyear (2007 characterized by abiotic, water stress) than in an optimum water supply cropyear (2008).