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Biswas, D. K., Das, T. M. (1993): Studies on weed shift in jute based cropping systems. Weed Sci. , 2 , 30–32. Das T. M. Studies on

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Yadav, R. L. (1998): Factor productivity trends in rice-wheat cropping system under long-term use of chemical fertilizers. Expl. Agric. , 34, 1-18. Factor productivity trends in rice

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, S.R., Rashid, Harun-ur, Khan, A.H., Buresh, R.J. 2006. Nutrient management for increased productivity of rice-wheat cropping system in Bangladesh. Field Crops Res. 96 :374–386. Buresh R

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Gangiah, B., Prasad, R. (1999): Effect of fertilizers on the productivity and NPK removal of a ricewheat cropping system. Acta Agron. Hung. , 47 , 405-412. Effect of fertilizers on the productivity and NPK removal of a ricewheat

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Sharma, M. P., Bali. S. V. (1998): Effect of rice (Oryza sativa) residue management in wheat yield and soil properties in rice-wheat (Triticum aestivum) cropping system. Indian J. Agric. Sci. , 68 , 695-696. Effect of rice

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A farming system experiment was conducted under dryland conditions in the western zone of Tamil Nadu with cropping, agroforestry, pigeons, goats, buffaloes and farm pond as the enterprise combination from July 2000 to March 2002. The cropping system of sorghum (fodder) + cowpea (fodder) followed by chickpea + coriander was supplied with either composted goat manure or composted buffalo manure at 100 or 75% of the production levels in order to investigate the effect of the source and amount of manures from the livestock enterprises linked in the system on cropping. The application of composted buffalo manure at 100% production level resulted in higher yield attributes, yield and returns in the second year, though the application of the recommended dose of fertilizers gave higher values for the same parameters in the first year, due to the buildup of nutrients over time. Higher yields of chickpea and coriander also indicated the favourable residual effect of the organic manures. This treatment ranked best with the highest benefit to cost ratio among the treatments imposed.

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In intensive irrigated farming systems, the way to improve productive efficiency depends on the proper management of resources. With the implementation of the Alqueva global irrigation system in the southern Portugal region of Alentejo, agricultural intensification is a reality that imposes to farmers the challenge of producing more and more efficiently, ensuring the farming systems sustainability. This work resulted from an on-farm demonstration project carried out in two locations in the Alqueva region. Water use and water productivity were studied during 2012/2013 and 2013/2014, in three double cropping systems: a maize monoculture (MM) and two rotations, barley + maize-barley (BM-B) and sunflower-barley + maize (S-BM). Maize yields were influenced by the length of the crop cycle. In the rotation BM-B, with a predominance of autumn-winter crops, water requirements were lower and the total volume of irrigation applied was approximately half of the monoculture (5930 m3/ha and 13,230 m3/ha, respectively). When the potential crop yield was reached, maize had the higher water productivity (the highest value achieved was of 2.7 kg/m3). Overall, as a result of the lower yields achieved, the water productivity values indicate a less balanced performance of the S-BM rotation.

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A field study conducted for two years (1995-96 and 1996-97) at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi on a sandy clay loam soil showed that the application of NP increased the total grain production of a rice-wheat-mungbean cropping system by 0.5-0.6 t ha -1 , NK by 0.3-0.5 t ha -1 and NPK by 0.8-0.9 t ha -1 compared to N alone, indicating that the balanced use of primary nutrients was more advantageous than their imbalanced application. The application of farmyard manure (FYM) along with NPK further increased the total productivity of the rice-wheat-mungbean cropping system by 0.3-0.6 t ha -1 , the organic C by 0.13%, the available N by 10.7 kg ha -1 , the available P by 4.7 kg ha -1 and the available K by 15 kg ha -1 compared to NPK after two crop cycles of the system. The results of the present study thus indicate that integrated nutrient management involving FYM and NPK fertilizers is a must for the sustainability of a cropping system.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: B.L. Béres, N.Z. Lupwayi, F.J. Larney, B. Ellert, E.G. Smith, T.K. Turkington, D. Pageau, K. Semagn, and Z. Wang

Research indicates that not all crops respond similarly to cropping diversity and the response of triticale (× Triticosecale ssp.) has not been documented. We investigated the effects of rotational diversity on cereals in cropping sequences with canola (Brassica napus L.), field pea (Pisum sativum L.), or an intercrop (triticale:field pea). Six crop rotations were established consisting of two, 2-yr low diversity rotations (LDR) (continuous triticale (T-T_LDR) and triticale-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (T-W_LDR)); three, 2-yr moderate diversity rotations (MDR) (triticale-field pea (T-P_MDR), triticale-canola (T-C_MDR), and a triticale: field pea intercrop (T- in P_MDR)); and one, 3-yr high diversity rotation (HDR) (canola-triticale-field pea (C-T-P_HDR)). The study was established in Lethbridge, Alberta (irrigated and rainfed); Swift Current (rainfed) and Canora (rainfed), Saskatchewan, Canada; and carried out from 2008 to 2014. Triticale grain yield for the 3-yr HDR was superior over the LDR rotations and the MDR triticale-field pea system; however, results were similar for triticale-canola, and removal of canola from the system caused a yield drag in triticale. Triticale biomass was superior for the 3-yr HDR. Moreover, along with improved triticale grain yield, the 3-yr HDR provided greater yield stability across environments. High rotational diversity (C-T-P_HDR) resulted in the highest soil microbial community and soil carbon concentration, whereas continuous triticale provided the lowest. Net economic returns were also superior for C-T-P_HDR ($670 ha–1) and the lowest for T-W_LDR ($458 ha–1). Overall, triticale responded positively to increased rotational diversity and displayed greater stability with the inclusion of field pea, leading to improved profitability and sustainability of the system.

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