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In Hungary, the professional coordinator of the execution of the 2003 UNESCO convention about the safeguarding of intangible cultural heritage is the Skanzen Hungarian Open Air Museum, celebrating its 50th birthday this year. During its existence, the institution has formed an extensive community and professional network and has become a knowledge center concerning the protection of cultural heritage. The establishment of the Directorate of Intangible Cultural Heritage at the Museum is closely connected to the topic, as it constructed its own national networks based on this background. With respect to the philosophy of the Skanzen, together with the sponsoring cultural ministry, the Directorate created a heritage protection mechanism that focuses on communities retaining and maintaining their identity as a cultural practice, actively engaging them in the unfolding and registration of their intangible cultural heritage. At the same time, it pays attention to continuous communication and options for exchanging experiences. The Hungarian model, which is internationally acknowledged, is exactly ten years old, since Hungary joined the convention in 2006.

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National cultures and European identity

The process of Engrenage among European Commission civil servants

Society and Economy
Author: Erika Tóth

The article introduces an empirical research conducted at the European Commission that aimed to investigate the European Commission’s organisational culture and how that reflects national cultural diversity. In the comprehensive analysis of the organisational culture and human resources policies, a clear focus was given to examine how civil servants coming from diverse national cultural backgrounds act in this multicultural environment. The research intended to describe how the Commission’s organisational culture handles national cultural diversity and whether civil servants’ attitudes change in the supranational environment, gradually embodying an emerging European identity.

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The author discusses globalisation form multiple perspectives. He emphasises that globalisation certainly reduces poverty in absolute sense while increases poverty in a relative sense. There are important risks inherent in the process of globalisation, which include hyper-competition, treat to the social rights of citizens, and rendering a lot of people economically irrelevant.  To cure the deficiencies of globalisation Professor Zamagni favours cosmopolitical democracy and transnational civil society, which might be able to safeguard cultural diversity, social justice and peace.

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This paper presents the preliminary conclusions of an ongoing research project on the subject of the translation of Greek restaurant menus. In the first part the rationale and the design of the study are described and a number of preliminary comments about the translation event are made. The second part deals with the linguistic and functional characteristics of restaurant menus and the final part focuses on the translation strategies used to deal with cultural diversity and on the relation which these strategies bear to the type and function of the text to be translated. It appears that in most cases the strategies used in translating menus do not lead either to a functionally equivalent or a professionally satisfactory target text. However, the deficiencies recorded are due to the inadequate abilities of those who provide the translations rather than to the fact that translation is practiced from the mother tongue into a foreign language. Translating is often viewed as a simple process of reproducing linguistic surface structures in another language. This attitude points, among others, to a lack of professionalism, the impact of which is considerable — customer dissatisfaction — and ultimately reduces to nil the mediating mission of translation.

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In the past decades researchers examining burial customs have recognised local phenomena pointing to the cultural diversity of the Avar population inhabiting the Carpathian Basin. Thus it has been proposed that several groups of different traditions and cultures may have coexisted in the territory of the Avars. In the recently excavated 7th–8th-century Avar cemeteries near Szekszárd (Szekszárd-Tószegidűlő, Tolna-Mözs-Fehérvize-dűlő) another — already known (Szekszárd-Bogyiszlói út és Gyönk-Vásártér út cemetery) — characteristic phenomenon was observed that can now be regarded as a regional feature. The paper discusses this burial type - which has recently also been found in great numbers in the cemetery of Tolna-Mözs —, namely the empty graves containing no human remains. Empty burials have been known in cemeteries of the Avar Age, however, their number is usually insignificant compared to the total number of graves. The aim of this paper is to analyse the possible reasons for empty graves and to show that they were the result of a conscious custom, most probably intended as symbolic burials.

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The changes in the legal universe that have been taking place in the last few decades have increased the potential value of different kinds of comparative law information and thereby urged new objectives for the comparative law community. The comparative method, which was earlier applied in the traditional framework of domestic law, is now being adapted to the new needs created by the ongoing globalization process, becoming broader and more comprehensive with respect to both its scope and goals. Associated with this development is a growing interest in the question of transferability or transplantability of legal norms and institutions across different cultures, especially in so far as current legal integration and harmonization processes require reasonably transferable models. This paper critically examines the issue of transferability of laws with particular attention to the theory of legal transplants propounded by Professor Alan Watson, one of the most influential contemporary comparatists and legal historians. It is submitted that the element of relativity imposed by the special relationship of the law to its socio-cultural environment must be taken into consideration when the comparative method is applied. However, the view held by some scholars that legal transplants are impossible betrays an exaggeration of cultural diversity as it contradicts the teachings of history and is at odds with recent trends towards legal integration in certain world regions.

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Comparative legal cultures?

Renewal by transforming into a genuine discipline

Acta Juridica Hungarica
Author: Csaba Varga

‘Comparative law’ was born to challenge national self-centredness at the turn of the 19th to 20th centuries, without transcending—notwithstanding its admission of social and cultural-historical approaches in the study of law—the perspectives of rule-positivism. ‘Comparative legal cultures’ attempts at explaining the prevailing cultural and traditional diversity that has generated, among others, western law with its modern formalism and the alternative ways of reaching social order in other cultures. By its focus upon the underlying culture and, thereby, also upon the hermeneutic understanding of legal phenomena, the latter is expected to offer growingly adequate responses to timely questions such as the universalisability of law and human rights, the convergence of the continental Civil Law and the British Common Law, or the development and future of the legal set-up in the Central and Eastern European region.The interest of the comparative study of legal cultures is thus one in the history of ideas, dedicated to human problem-solving as the cultural response of people to external challenges. For the description of living complexes in terms of mere rules can result at most in ‘thin description’ with the exclusion of ‘thick description’, the more so as rules (just as concepts) are only the consequences of a kind of possible representation, therefore, relying exclusively upon them may contribute to dissolving even prevailing interrelations, atomising organic components as fragmented into detached elements. Or, institutional thinking not-withstanding, not even the subject’s formalism can serve as a ground for restricting human completeness and integrity, cultural diversity, as well as responsibility to be taken for these.

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Med. 2003; 78: 577–587. 6 UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity. [UNESCO Egyetemes Nyilatkozat a Kulturális Sokszínűségről.] Available from

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of Ethno-Cultural Diversity and Neighborhood Cohesion in Three European Countries (No. SP VI 2014-103). WZB Discussion Paper. Lawrence , J. , 2011 . The Effect of

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Fanyi Dahui. Translation and Cultural Diversity / Traduction et diversité culturelle / Fanyi yu duoyuan-wenhua. Proceedings / Actes / Lunwenji. Shanghai: Foreign Languages Press (CD-ROM). 11. The article is under copyright of “Foreign Languages

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