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A literary historian is not qualified to comment on a work by a musicologist unless it ideals with literature as much as with music. The author of this book attempts to situate Bartók's musiv in cultural history. She aims high—perhaps a little too high-but the books has undeniably a much wider horizon than most, it not all, full-lenght studies of the works greatest Hungarian musician of the first half of the twentieth century.

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Chancery manuals, copybooks of correspondence, and other bound miscellanies of the classical Ottoman period are a rich, yet insufficiently known and underutilised resource for the study of political and cultural history. This essay describes the origins, types, contents and uses of these manuscript compilations, their cultural and historical significance, and some ideas concerning the circumstances of their production. Following a discussion of the potential of primary sources of this kind for political and cultural history, the essay concludes with an extensive annotated bibliography outlining the state of research on the subject.

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Abstract  

As indicated by the title of this essay, the diverse meanings of Hungarian cultural history confront us with some difficult tasks. We are called upon to interpret Hungarian culture as a firm and stratified unity, which is stratified in both time and space, and yet also contains a constantly changing content and dimension. Furthermore, the word “Jewish,” as we shall see, also has several meanings. It may mean, for example, a world religion, a historical tradition, a colorful collection of literary texts, a sociological group, a community, or simply a “counternotion,” a label applied to an enemy.

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The present paper offers a complete inventory of authoritative passages in Sanskrit and Prakrit texts on gemmology and Sanskrit lexicons where emerald is dealt with. Fresh light is thrown on the hotly debated issue whether the description of beryl in the Arthaśāstra II, 11, 30 contains an indirect reference to emerald. The Sanskrit names of emerald are analysed and commented on. Texts revealing the history of emerald and its origin are put to the test, and the evident mistakes prevalent in the special literature are corrected. Finally, a peculiar belief on the magic power of emerald is analysed within a wider context.

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Zoltán Kodály’s Kállai kettős [Couple Dance of Kálló] was premiered by the Hungarian State Folk Ensemble in Budapest in 1951. However, it was not in Kodály’s work that the folk songs arranged in it were first presented to the cultured public. In the interchange of folk tradition and high culture they have already cropped up in the past three hundred years, among others in stage productions. This paper examines the folkloristic sources of Kodály’s work from a dual angle: how they were connected to the stage before Kodály’s arrangement and how their variants were embedded in the folk tradition. Today Kállai kettős is living also a “double life”: Kodály’s work is part of the national canon, but it is also present in the traditional productions of the revivalists of Nagykálló.

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The historian Şükrullâh Çelebi (1380?–1460), coming from the family of ulemas , belongs to the less known figures of Ottoman historiography. Our knowledge concerning his life is very limited: in the period of 1402–1413 he must have been in the service of the şehzâdes reigning in Bursa, then he became one of the musâhibs of Murad II, finally he died in Mehmed II’s time as a person of great reverence. It was Sultan Mehmed II for whom he compiled his world history, the Behcetü’t-Tevârîh in the Persian language, in 1456–1458. One of the sources of this work was obviously identical with that formerly utilised by Ahmedî, then by Neşrî. Şükrullâh’s Chronicle yielded source material for several later chronicles. His translation into Turkish of the Risâle min Edvâr , a Persian work of musicology, testifies to the presence of the classifying tendencies of Sultan Murad II’s reign, which tried to bring the Ottoman culture in harmony with the classical Iranian culture.

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This paper explores how Ingoma, a dance of the Ngoni of Malawi can be described as an identity marker and a cultural text of the Ngoni. The Ngoni constitute one of the nine major ethnic groups of Malawi. Unlike the other eight ethnic groups, however, the Ngonido do not have a language with which they are identified and use for everyday communication. This is largely due to socio-cultural and political influences that they experienced in the areas they settled. Notwithstanding this aspect of their identity, their dance Ingoma has stood the test of time and continues to be transmitted from one generation to another. Since language is key to the transmission of dance, the paper also examines the implications of transmitting dance in other people’s language. The paper focuses on three main groups of the Ngoni, namely, the M’mbelwaJere found in the north, the MpezeniJere found in the west and the GomaniMaseko in the centre. The Ingoma performances by groups from each of these areas were investigated.

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This study attempts to investigate how Hungarians think about life. By applying a nationwide representative survey of Hungarian adults, we wished to answer the following two research questions: a) what are the major metaphorical conceptualizations of life among Hungarians?; and b) what factors, such as socio-economic status and basic value orientations, might influence the prevalence for the metaphors used to talk about life? Our results suggest that there are considerable generational differences: while the negative mindset (in the form of more negative metaphors) is still common within the older generation, there is a shift towards a more positive and more “American” conceptualization of life among younger people in Hungary.

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