This article would like to serve as an addition to the perceived historical picture of Hungary in the Anglo-Saxon world, relying on articles published in British but mainly in American daily newspapers and magazines in the 1920s and 1930s. While some of the articles were by Hungarian authors or authors with Hungarian origins, the majority was not and, so they give a good indication about the impressions that Anglo-Saxon peoples were both having and getting about Interwar Hungary. One can find voices from both the Left and Right of the political spectrum, positive and negative interpretations of Hungary alike in such well-known periodicals as The New Republic and Foreign Affairs, or lesser known outlets as The Living Age or Current History. In addition, the study invites the opinion of several American ministers who served in Hungary in the examined period. There unpublished opinions about their host country add further nuances to the picture of Hungary and Hungarians in American minds. These opinions together, ranging from domestic policies to the foreign policy issues that all sprang from the Paris peace treaties, also contributed to the larger understanding of Hungarian political and cultural issues. This picture is a colorful one, spanning from politics to economics, from cultural to psychological aspects.
The progressives were those who preferred universal secret suffrage to restricted and open voting, modern sociology to old-fashioned hair-splitting over public law issues, secularism to the extensive political economic social and cultural influence of the Churches. Kossuth was a key figure for them. Kossuth's program integrated all the liberal and national aims close to their hearts.
The paper discusses the cultural hybridazation of the peoples of the Adriatic from the point of view of food identity. Venice was a grand empire during the era of the Serene Republic, a crossroads of knowledge of all kinds. People exerted their cultural influence from places like Veneto, Friuli, Istrana, Dalmatia, Israel, Albania, Greece, Armenia, Germany, and Turkey. The cultural excellence of patrician cuisine has its roots in this cultural mixture, with its expertise of Oriental spices (such as pepper, cinnamon, moscata nuts, cloves) and the unique preparation of dried salted fish. It is this aspect of the Adriatic that the present paper focuses on.
While Béla Bartók's Selbstbiographie of 1921 provides some insight into his musical training in Pozsony, music historians looking for a broader understanding of the rich musical life that helped shape Bartók must also consider autobiographical statements made by his contemporaries. Fortunately, excellent opportunities present themselves in the writings of the two musicians who preceded Bartók as the organist for the Pozsony Gymnasium's Sunday Mass: Franz Schmidt's Autobiographische Skizze, which he completed around 1915, and Ernő Dohnányi's Memoirs, which he read over Hungarian Radio on January 30, 1944. This article examines the three autobiographical statements to provide a more accurate representation of the richness of Pozsony's musical life at the end of the nineteenth century, and a more complete portrayal of the musical and cultural influences under which Bartók thrived in Pozsony.
A szexuális diszfunkciók patogenezisében kiemelkedő jelentőségűek a kognitív organizáció zavarai, amelyek mint sajátos jelentésadási módozatok alakítják az egyén szexuális öndefinícióját, továbbá közvetítő szerepük van a fiziológiai, affektív és viselkedéses válaszok létrejöttében. A szexuális információfeldolgozás folyamatában mind a kultúra által közvetített szexuális forgatókönyvek és mítoszok, mind a diszfunkcionális szexuális attitűdök, sémák és modalitások aktiválódása kitüntetett szerepet játszik.
This paper aims at giving an overview of the main traditional tendencies and new trends in historical Slavic linguistics in Hungary. Traditionally, since the end of the 19th century, the main goal of investigations has been the interpretation of the Slavic linguistic and cultural influence on the Hungarian language and culture, having continuously been present in the Carpathian basin for more than a thousand year. The language contacts resulted in a vast number of lexical borrowings, calques, and toponyms of Slavic origin in Hungarian, and also in the appearance of Church Slavonic written sources of local redaction. The author describes the process of the methodological progress in the research of these areas and presents the most important results. Since the 1990’s, new trends have emerged in historical Slavic linguistics in Hungary that can be identified as the application of methods and frameworks of areal and theoretical (cognitive and generative) linguistics, which makes the renewal of this discipline possible.
The Bohai state existed in the modern southern part of the Russian Far East (Primor’e region), North Korea and Northeastern China from the late 7th to the early 10th century. Bohai influenced many states and tribes that existed close to this state and played an important role in international relations between Silla, Japan and the Tang Empire. At the same time, Bohai was subjected to important cultural influences from other countries and in some cases followed their rituals and diplomatic traditions. Many specialists from Japan, Russia, China and the two Korean states have done research on various aspects of Bohai history and culture. However, most of these scholars failed to pay attention to Bohai’s influence on the role of ritual and the status of states in its international relations. Western specialists have also neglected the investigation of this field. Bohai and Silla (another Korean state in the southern part of the Korean Peninsula) had hostile relations over two hundred years because they could not agree on their respective status vis-à-vis each other. For example, Silla did not want to recognise Bohai as a sovereign and independent state, although Bohai was recognised as such by China, while Silla was a vassal of the Tang Empire. This article critically analyses the relations between Bohai and Silla and elucidates the origin of the conflict between the two countries using Russian and Korean publications.
This article examines American cultural influences in Brazil, particularly in terms of translations published in Brazil. It proposes that the great majority of American books published occupied a conservative position in the Brazilian literary system, and in certain periods, such as the post-1964 military dictatorship, the US government financed the publication of American works translated into Portuguese in order to help to provide the right-wing military government with a cultural focus. However, the importation of American literature has been seen in very different ways: in the late 19th and early 20th centuries the cheapness of American culture and the global aims of the future superpower were already being criticized. For others, America meant democracy and an economic model to emulate. In the 1920s and 1930s the publisher, translator and writer of children's stories, Monteiro Lobato, saw the importation of American ideas and technology as a way of taking Brazil out of its backwardness, and expected translations of American works to counterbalance the dominant French trends. In the most repressive years of the military dictatorship, from the end of 1968 to the mid-seventies, the translation of Beat poetry acted as a form of protest.
Authors:J. O. Santos, C. S. Munita, M. E. G. Valério, C. Vergne, and P. M. S. Oliveira
Chemistry fingerprint of materials helps determine provenance and technological production techniques, and, therefore, is
useful way to study interaction between prehistoric people. In this work 38 ceramic fragments from Justino and São José sites,
in Brazilian northeast, were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The recognition of the compositionally
homogeneous group within of the database was performed by means of principal component (PC). The PC scores were calculated
on the matrix covariance of the log base 10 transformed concentration values, and grouping was sought in the PC scores using
Kernel Density Estimates (KDE). By using KDE from PC scores two chemically different groups were found. Discriminant analysis
was performed to assess the groups' validity. Despite of the pottery from Justino and São José sites present same technical
profile, different of the Tupiguarani and Aratu traditions, it was obtained that Justino and São José samples are constitute
of distinct ceramic pastes. This result can be understood in terms of the cultural influences in the preparation of the ceramic
past and that potteries analyzed are originate locally.
Central Europe (Europe-Between, Zwischeneuropa) belonged to the sphere of German cultural influence. Western intellectual trends came also through German language areas either directly or indirectly by transmitting ideas (e.g.: the products of Renaissance intellectual trends or the ideas of the Enlightenment). At the same time the peoples of the region were also in direct connection with one another. In several cases the rulers of Hungary, Bohemia and Poland had been the members of the same dynasties but there were periods when personal union was the form of governance. The institutionally organised protection of the mother tongue, the establishment of national literature and science took place at different times and lasted from the beginning of the sixteenth century until the end of the nineteenth century, with the exception of the Czech language. This vision of cultural history is presented in this lecture by comparing the similarities and the differences in reading history of the region. The first examples are taken from the Protestant Reformation and its preceding Spiritual and Humanist movements. I will discuss the direct connections between Hungary and Livonia (through the two examples of the Hungarian translation and publication of Georg Ziegler’s book and the Hungarian students of the Papal Seminary of Riga) touching also upon the shared university studies of students from several nations of Europe-Between (in Bologna, Padova, Wittenberg, Heidelberg, Strasburg, etc.).