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In September 1939, within a short span of time, Poland was attacked by Germany from the west and the Soviet army from the eastern borders. According to a previous diplomatic agreement, the Polish government fled to Romania. Noting these events, while resisting political and military constrictions, Hungary opened its borders to the fleeing Polish civilians and to members of the military force to offer refuge. In fact, more than a hundred thousand Polish citizens found asylum in Hungary at that time. At this historical point, Stanisława Rogińska and her daughter Halina Waroczewska fled from Warsaw, and after crossing the Hungarian border settled first at Szob, then moved to Klotildliget, Leányfalu, and finally to Keszthely at Lake Balaton. The writing, based on their memories, presents the dramatic moments of crossing the border and of getting established in those first difficult months. The memoir also illustrates the historically honoured Hungarian–Polish friendship, which at this time was forced by events outside of either nation’s control. It also illuminates the noblest pages of Hungarian history.

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The idea of filial piety has been very widespread in all spheres of Mongolian cultural life. It was present in folk songs as well as in high level literary works of the 13th-14th centuries. The present paper is devoted to a unique manuscript originating from the 17th century: Dalai blam-a-yin ecige eke-degen aci qari?ulqui neretü sudur from the Oriental Collection of the Library of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. The sutra seems to be a manual used at funerals, or during the rituals of the mourning period, and is a very nice piece of Mongolian literature remembering and praising the mother's love towards her child.

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The astonishing omission of Bartók - inadvertent, but justified by the editor ex post facto - from the recent Cambridge History of Twentieth-Century Music prompts reflection on why Bartók is such an indispensable figure in any adequate account of the music of this time - and after. All the more indispensable has he become, paradoxically enough, now that musicology is at last turning away from the “poetic fallacy,” according to which composers are the only historically significant agents in music history,, and giving due weight to meditation and reception. To imagine “Life without Bartók” will be among this paper's thought experiments. Another, perhaps inevitably, will be a comparison of Bartók and Stravinsky,, not only as composers but also as forces in cultural life, both in their time and in ours.

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As a result of the Great Immigration in 1690, considering the number of settlers, the county of Baranya became the most significant area populated by Serbians in Hungary. At first the ethnical groups - governed by the patriarch - were settled down only for temporary residence in this southern quarter of former Hungary which was the nearest to their motherland. But the political situation did not make their moving back possible even in the following years. The activity of construction became significant by the strengthening of the spiritual and cultural life. The not more than 200 years that forms the boundary of coming the sacred buildings of Serbians into existence, is a very intensive church-construction period consisting of several stages.

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This paper looks at the history of the small Islamic town of Dunaysir in the Diyār Rabī'a region of Upper Mesopotamia, which flourished especially in the 12th and 13th centuries A.D. as an agricultural centre and market town, with a lively intellectual and cultural life. A local physician and scholar, Abū Hafs 'Umar b. al-Khidr al-Turkī(d. ca. 1242-1243) wrote a history of the town's notable scholars and literary men. It is important for being the only known history of the town, for its rich biographical information and for being the sole authority for a large amount of Arabic verse by Jaziran poets. Biographical notes on these notables are given, and some illustrative sections of the history translated.

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The idea of ‘national’ in Croatian 19th-century music shows evolutionary tendencies, which can be articulated in four phases. It started in the period 1800–1830 as a construct leading towards higher general musical standards, displaying universality above particularity as its ideal. It continued in the period 1830–1850 with pragmatic treatment of music as incidental to poetry, supporting non-musical, mostly political issues, where universality equaled particularity. It achieved in the period 1850–1870 the status of a substantial part in the scholarly re-construction of national history, still equaling universality with particularity. Finally, as a concept of ethnic or national art music, it reached in the period 1870–1916 a status of general interest in national cultural life and education, displaying particularity above universality.

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In the well-discussed introduction to The Miraculous Mandarin Bartók’s music depicts the stylized image of an anonymous metropolis. It is, however, very likely that Bartók referred to a specific city: the capital of Europe in the (long) 19th century, Paris. The precise geographic attribution is made possible by Bartók’s repeated use of the French term apache, referring to the three thugs. Originally the name of a group of North American indian tribes, the second meaning of the term came up at the beginning of the 20th century. It was omnipresent in French press and French cultural life at a time when Bartók, in 1905, first visited the city that impressed him so much. As Bartók began to think about the Mandarin in 1918 he chose this term, that by now had been integrated into Hungarian too, to designate the thugs adequately.

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This paper explores the reasons for the translation boom in the 1990s in mainland China. During this period translated literature flourished in China. Many translations were retranslations of the great classical works of world literature. The major reason for the prospering of retranslations in this period was commercial. After 1978, the year of political opening-up, the monotonous cultural life of the Chinese people was enriched and enthusiasm for reading classical literature reawakened. A surprisingly large readership emerged. Well-established publishers, such as People’s Literature Publishing House and Yilin Publishing House produced many high-quality translations of works included in the world’s literary canons, which fueled and strengthened people’s interest in reading literature. Due to a large market, re-translation and re-publication of foreign masters became a very lucrative business. Some publishers were unqualified for publishing foreign literature and they did not have foreign-language editors. However, in the hope of making a large profit, they began to publish poor-quality retranslations of literary masterworks, even though a canonical translation of the same work had been published by some other publishing house. As a result, the retranslation boom of the 1990s in mainland China became a bedlam.

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The study presents the history of the Jesuit missions led to Ottoman Hungary, summarising the conclusions of the author’s earlier research. After long decades of a preparative phase, the Jesuits settled down in Ottoman Hungary in 1612. In the beginnings, the mission stood under the authority of the Austrian and Roman provinces. The southern stations, Belgrade (1612–1632) and Temesvár (Timişoara, 1632–1653) belonged to the latter province. The missions of Pécs (1612–1686–1773), Andocs (1642–1684), Kecskemét (1633–1635) and the residence of Gyöngyös (1633–1682–1773) worked under the authority of the Austrian provincial. The stations counted 2–3 Jesuits, whereas in Gyöngyös 3–6 religious were active at the same time. In spite of the low number of missionaries, the activity of the Jesuits had an inestimable impact on religious and cultural life as well as on the conservation of national identity. Stations assisted in the pastoral care of the local parishes led large-scale missions well beyond the boundaries of the parish and maintained schools. In Transdanubia, the Jesuits were practically the only priests who took spiritual care of the population. The Gyöngyös grammar school was the only institution of secondary education under Turkish occupation; it was attended also by students from the Hungarian Kingdom. The fathers brought the spirit of the European Catholic reform to the Ottoman territories.

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In the 16th–17th centuries the Ottoman conquerors of the occupied territories of Hungary gradually established their own intitutions. Together with the military, dervishes also appeared and generally settled outside the defended city walls. Owing to the sparsity of source material, the lives and activities of these dervishes and their monasteries are less known. The present study attempts to collect and present all the data concerning the Bektaşi convents in Ottoman Hungary. Five monasteries are known to have existed that undoubtedly belonged to the Bektaşi order: two in Buda, one in Eger, another one in Székesfehérvár and one in Lippa. It is most likely that the convent of Yağmur Baba in Hatvan, that of Muhtar Baba in Buda, and perhaps that in Szolnok also had Bektaşi affiliations. This relatively small number may probably be augmented in the future, since many more Babas had monasteries and shrines in Ottoman Hungary, whose biographies and affiliations still await further research. Obviously, the political elite in Ottoman Hungary considered it important to support the Bektaşi dervishes; they fostered the building of convents and provided them with endowments. Thus, in addition to the pronounced presence of the Bektaşis in literary monuments, and the reputation of Gül Baba preserved throughout the centuries, the presence of Bektaşi convents in Hungary also testifies to the significant role played by this dervish order in the cultural life of Ottoman Hungary.

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