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Literature Champeil , A. , Dore , T. and Fourbet , J. F. ( 2004 a): Fusarium head blight: epidemiological origin of the effects of cultural practices on head blight attacks and the production of mycotoxins by Fusarium in wheat grains

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This theoretical paper argues, firstly, that eye contact could serve as a method of signaling attraction and, secondly, could be misinterpreted and lead into sexual coercion. On the basis of these discussions, it is therefore hypothesized that eye covering practices in some cultures serve as mate guarding strategies to decrease the probability of infidelity and sexual coercion by potential mate poachers. In other words, eye concealing practices could be considered a mate retention tactic used by males to prevent rival males from misinterpreting the eye gaze of their spouses, or to prevent their spouses from sending genuine signals of sexual interest, as men cannot misinterpret what they cannot see.

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The sustainable production of wheat may be possible by integrating crop rotation with improved crop management practices. The maximum grain yield of wheat was observed when field pea was the precursor crop. The precursor crop and management levels showed a significant effect on the mean straw and grain yields of wheat. Field pea as precursor crop gave a better wheat grain yield with both improved and farmers' cultural practices. Both local and improved varieties gave a better response to management levels on the field pea precursor field. Local and improved varieties gave higher yields with intensive management and chemical fertilizer application. Field pea as precursor crop gave a combined grain yield advantage of 32% relative to barley. Management practices produced a combined grain yield advantage of 16 to 73% when field pea was the precursor crop, compared to barley. The use of field pea as precursor crop with improved management practices is essential to maximize wheat yields. Better grain yields and higher net returns were achieved with field pea as precursor crop compared to barley. Using field pea as precursor crop is the most successful management option for sustainable wheat production.

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In Hungary, the professional coordinator of the execution of the 2003 UNESCO convention about the safeguarding of intangible cultural heritage is the Skanzen Hungarian Open Air Museum, celebrating its 50th birthday this year. During its existence, the institution has formed an extensive community and professional network and has become a knowledge center concerning the protection of cultural heritage. The establishment of the Directorate of Intangible Cultural Heritage at the Museum is closely connected to the topic, as it constructed its own national networks based on this background. With respect to the philosophy of the Skanzen, together with the sponsoring cultural ministry, the Directorate created a heritage protection mechanism that focuses on communities retaining and maintaining their identity as a cultural practice, actively engaging them in the unfolding and registration of their intangible cultural heritage. At the same time, it pays attention to continuous communication and options for exchanging experiences. The Hungarian model, which is internationally acknowledged, is exactly ten years old, since Hungary joined the convention in 2006.

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Authors: B. Husenov, S. Asaad, H. Muminjanov, L. Garkava-Gustavsson, A. Yorgancillar and E. Johansson

Wheat seed-borne diseases are among the major constraints reducing crop yield and the quality of seed and grain. In this study we aimed to evaluate the type and prevalence of fungal seed-borne diseases in Tajik wheat seed samples. Particular emphasis was given to common bunt resistance in advanced wheat breeding materials. Furthermore, we aimed to identify options for improving the seed quality. Seed samples collected from two different locations in Tajikistan were tested by conventional seed-health testing methods for presence of seed-borne diseases. Nineteen advanced wheat breeding lines and three varieties collected from the Tajik wheat breeding program were screened using an artificial inoculation test for their response to common bunt. Significant differences were found between the locations and genotypes concerning presence of common bunt and black point. Fourteen fungal species, where most of them are pathogenic for wheat, were identified in the seed samples. Tilletia laevis, T. tritici, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Stemphylium spp., and Drechslera spp. were the major pathogenic fungi observed in collected wheat samples. Common bunt was predominantly represented by T. laevis. No strong resistance was found in the studied Tajik wheat material, although a low percentage of infection was found in one line (SHARK/ F4105W2.1), while the material was evaluated for common bunt resistance. In managing seed-borne diseases, breeding of resistant varieties should be given a priority, while cultural practices such as preventing contamination and monitoring seed health status should also be considered, as a last resort the use of chemical seed treatments are advised.

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Authors: Drazenka Jurkovic, Jasenka Cosic, Karolina Vrandecic, Georg Drezner and Marko Josipovic

Champeil, A., Dore, T., Fourbet, J.F. (2004): Fusarium head blight: epidemiological origin of the effects of cultural practices on head blight attacks and the production of mycotoxins by Fusarium in wheat grains. Plant Science 166

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of cultural practices on head blight attacks and the production of mycotoxins by Fusarium in wheat grains. Plant Sci. 166 :1389–1415. Fourbet J.F. Fusarium head blight

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. Waterer , D. & Schmitz , D. ( 1994 ): Influence of variety and cultural practices on garlic yields in Saskatchewan . Can. J. Plant Sci. , 74 , 611 – 614

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Neptune, G. (1953): Cold tolerance studies with hybrid seed corn. Ph.D. Thesis. Michigan State Coll. Pendleton, J. (1965): Cultural practices, spacing etc. Am. Seed Trade Assoc. Hybrid Corn Div. Indus. Res Rpt

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Authors: I. Turšić, M. Čavlek, T. Ćosić, M. Tratnik and et al.

Papenfus, H. (1970): Effects of climate and cultural practices on the growth characteristics of flue-cured tobacco. Proc. 5th Int. Tob. Sci. , Hamburg, September 14-19, pp. 105-116. Effects of climate and cultural practices on the

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