The author analyses the existence of a youth subculture, as it appears in two subcultural spheres on the basis of interviews and her experience of fieldwork carried out in a city in Central Europe. Values and experiences which are connected to the underground electromusic actions are discussed, while the places and modes of cultural actions are studied. The subcultural patterns which increasingly influence the youth of the cities reflect an estrangement from the city life. The liminal phases of estrangement recur in the life of the individual, they provide a possibility to gain communal experiences and to establish special subcultural values. These are possible only with the adaptation to the cultural pattern and with the acceptance and usage of subcultural activities.
This paper reviews a number of disciplinary connections between evolutionary biology and linguistics as suggested by linguists, cognitive scientists, anthropologists and evolutionary biologists. It constitutes a survey of the various kinds of links proposed between evolutionary biology and linguistics. By adopting this research perspective it is not intended here to support any kind of biological determinism in human linguistic capabilities. Rather, the goal of this analysis rests entirely with a formal analysis of the integration of scientific disciplines. However, it is worth noting that as a phenomenon which also belongs to the cultural sphere, perhaps most notably through semantics, metaphors, and symbolic representation, the analysis of the connections between linguistics and the social sciences constitutes an entirely legitimate entreprise. This paper is especially concerned with three topics. First, evolutionary biology covers a wide spectrum of divergent theories and conceptions. Is this entire spectrum exploited to investigate linguistic questions? Secondly, what is the nature of the integration between linguistics and evolutionary biology? Is it profound or superficial in nature? Lastly, can linguists and cognitive scientists embrace specific evolutionary theories without adopting the philosophical and metaphysical conceptions that are sometimes attached to them? These topics will be investigated through three research areas: scenarios of hominization, historical linguistics and the language faculty.
Lajos Kassák’s exhibition in the Fényes Adolf Showroom in 1967 was to be the last exhibition during the lifetime of that emblematic figure of the historic avant-garde in Hungary. It also serves as a window into the emergence of self-financed exhibitions at that time. There were two mutually contradictory phenomena connected with Kassák and his art in the Sixties: resurgence and rejection. Mounting demands for Kassák’s art to be put on show were set against the banishment of such exhibitions to the periphery. Kassák fought hard for acceptance as a painter. The contradictions typified by this simultaneous resurgence and rejection beset all kinds of intellectual accomplishment in the Kádár era, and more accurately characterize the period than the — nowadays somewhat worn-out – concept of ‘prohibition.’
After 1956, the cultural authorities’ relations with artists and cultural intellectuals were decidedly cold. After reaching a low point in 1957, cultural relations began to improve in the 1960s through a process that may be most simply described as a gradual widening of dialogue or attempts at dialogue, with both the authorities and those involved in cultural life putting out feelers to each other at varying levels of intensity. They sought a broader set of partners, on one side in the hope of a more rewarding pursuit of culture, and on the other in hope of justification. This process continued to unfold until the events of 1968, after which it stagnated and began to deteriorate. Set against this simple schema, Kassák’s exhibition in 1967 took place as optimistic dialogue was reaching its peak. But even in that brightest phase of compromise-seeking between the system and the cultural sphere, there was to be no prestigious, publicly-funded life’s-work exhibition for Kassák; only a modest, ‘off-site’ self-financed show in the Fényes Adolf Showroom.
This period saw an extension of the ‘tolerated art’ category. The regime could not — or did not want to — maintain its division into friends and enemies. By the end of the period, the passively-tolerated category had completely displaced the active, judgemental thrust of cultural policy and with the emergence of the self-financing exhibition system it became firmly established.
Summary The new avant-garde, experimental and interdisciplinary subculture, which later became a sort of parallel culture, presented its perspective potential already in the early 1970s. It went beyond the canonized and largely conformed literary and artistic languages and worked out the practice of a systematic compenetrability of literary and artistic languages in general. In the late 1970s and in the 80s this artistic productivity became stronger and more coherent in quality. Because of the radical reinterpretation of language and, consequently, thinking and radical speaking about society and art this new current came into conflict with political power yet standing on an ideological basis. On the other hand and because of the same reason, it arrived at an opposition with cultural institutions and informal power groups and persons inside them. These institutions and power groups had developed a kind of modus vivendi with political power, so they could secure the limits of canonized languages and ways of communication in the cultural sphere. Thus, the new avant-garde and experimental trends came into conflict with the settled value-systems after all. The common denominator of those who were interested in preserving existing political power and the aesthetic status quo against the new avant-garde experimentalism, was the “protection' of the national and linguistic identity. This possibility was severely denied to the other part. This typically Hungarian and typically East-Central-European triangle (which, in reality, meant one aesthetic opposition) formed a characteristically Hungarian and characteristically East-Central-European mutant of the new avant-garde experimentalism, which proved to be highly productive. By reason of several linguistic and poetical characteristics this mutant can be distinguished from “western' avant-garde and experimental waves and trends, which, at the same time, often meant a starting point and a background of creative energies for it. For lack of minimal recognition and perspective canonicity at least, the intellectual survival and development, furthermore the aesthetically credible canonization of this parallel culture were made possible by two factors. One of these factors was the not overwhelmingly numerous, but coherent public of this scene. The other one appeared in its more and more organic work-contacts developed with western new-avant-garde-experimental trends. Simplifying a little: the characteristically Hungarian new-avant-garde, after having been cut off from national cultural canon, could function being embedded in the international avant-garde scene. This process, even if in a different way, ran its course at the same time in the Central-East-European countries. Back to back, knowing little about each other, they kept their eyes on the “West'. That's how they formed their own supranational and, at the same time, specifically regional artistic practice, poetics and languages. Even their meeting points took shape within the various institutions of West-European avant-garde culture. Some stable points of regional organization appeared only in the 90s. All these, at times contradictory processes and events of the afore characterized part of cultural history should be analysed in the dimensions of the provincial, the regional and the universal.
in a wider academic and culturalsphere. 4 These small numbers do confirm that the A&HCI coverage of the humanities and specifically literature studies is quite limited, but nonetheless distinct patterns and changes in the intellectual base can be
culturalsphere as the ‘Beremend-type’ burials, 53 there are several key aspects which signify their different character and allow a seemingly clear distinction between them. First of all, the size of the cemetery in terms of the number of graves should be
, and the translator Zhīqiān 支謙 used an expression with which his Chinese readership would be familiar. Although the term itself is drawn from the Chinese culturalsphere, the technique of prognosticating the futures of animals is also attested in