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Curing kinetics and thermal stability of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol

Mixture of aromatic imide-amines of benzophenone 3,3′, 4,4′-tetra-carboxylic acid dianhydride and 4,4′-diaminodiphenylsulfone

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: P. Sharma, V. Choudhary and A. Narula

Abstract  

Curing kinetics of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) in the presence of varying molar ratios of aromatic imide-amines and 4,4′-diaminodiphenylsulfone (DDS) were investigated by the dynamic differential scanning calorimetry. The imide-amines were prepared by reacting 1 mole of benzophenone 3,3′,4,4′-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (B) with 2.5 moles of 4,4′-diaminodiphenyl ether (E)/ or 4,4′-diaminodiphenyl methane (M)/ or 4,4′-diaminodiphenylsulfone (S) and designated as BE/ or BM/ or BS. The mixture of imide-amines and DDS at ratio of 0:1, 0.25:0.75, 0.5:0.5, 0.75:0.25 and 1:0 were used to investigate the curing behaviour of DGEBA. The multiple heating rate method (5, 10, 15 and 20°C min−1) was used to study the curing kinetics of epoxy resins. The peak exotherm temperature was found to be dependent on the heating rate, structure of imide-amines as well as on the ratio of imide-amine: DDS used. A broad exotherm was observed in the temperature range of 180–230°C on curing with mixture of imide-amines and DDS. Curing of DGEBA with mixture of imide-amines and/or DDS resulted in a decrease in characteristic curing temperatures. Activation energy of curing reaction as determined in accordance to the Ozawa’s method was found to be dependent on the structure of amine. The thermal stability of the isothermally cured resins was also evaluated using dynamic thermogravimetry in a nitrogen atmosphere. The char yield was highest in case of resins cured using mixture of DDS: BS (0.25:0.75; EBS-3), DDS: BM (0.5: 0.5; EBM-2) and DDS: BE (0.5: 0.5; EBE-2).

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Abstract  

Curing kinetics of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) in the presence of maleic anhydride (MA)/or nadic anhydride (NA) or mixture of MA/NA: 4,4′-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS) in varying molar ratios were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. Curing behaviour of DGEBA in the presence of varying amounts of DDS:MA/NA was evaluated by recording DSC scans at heating rates of 5, 10, 15 and 20°C min−1. The peak exotherm temperature depends on the heating rate, structure of the anhydride as well as on the ratio of anhydride: DDS. Thermal stability of the isothermally cured resins was evaluated by thermogravimetry. The char yield was highest in case of resins cured using mixture of DDS:MA (0.75:0.25; sample EM-1) and DDS:NA (0.75:0.25, sample EN-1).

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the cure kinetics of such systems is becoming increasingly important, especially when it leads to reliable predictions of the end-use properties of the cured network. Kinetics of epoxy curing with anhydride hardener was studied by numerous

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Blaž Likozar, Romana Cerc Korošec, Ida Poljanšek, Primož Ogorelec and Peter Bukovec

–urea–formaldehyde (MUF) resins Curing kinetics of MUF resins has not been studied extensively up to date. Higuchi et al. [ 2 ] proposed a model in which the melamine residues, incorporating a small amount of urea residues, form a three

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addition of modifiers to epoxy may change some aspects of the cure kinetics such as the progress of T g , whereas the prominent characteristics such as gelation remain unchanged. Fig. 9 T

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Abstract  

In this work the curing kinetics behaviour of a rubber modified epoxy amine system is investigated through calorimetric analysis. This study is part of a wider investigation on new epoxy formulations to be used as matrices of composite materials. The aim is to enhance both the processing behaviour and the mechanical properties of the matrix in order to obtain higher performance composites for more demanding applications. The epoxy system is blended with a high molecular mass rubber containing functional groups reactive towards the epoxies. The formation of a rubber/epoxy network can be achieved by means of a 'pre-reaction' between the epoxy monomers and the rubber functional groups, carried out in the presence of a suitable catalyst and before the resin is cured with the amino hardener. In this work the influence of both the rubber and the catalyst on the resin cure kinetics is analysed.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: B. Erdoğan, A. Seyhan, Y. Ocak, M. Tanoğlu, D. Balköse and S. Ülkü

Abstract  

The cure kinetics of epoxy resin and epoxy resin containing 10 mass% of natural zeolite were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The conformity of the cure kinetic data of epoxy and epoxy-zeolite system was checked with the auto-catalytic cure rate model. The results indicated that the hydroxyl group on the zeolite surface played a significant role in the autocatalytic reaction mechanism. This group was able to form a new transition state between anhydride hardener and epoxide group. The natural zeolite particles acted as catalyst for the epoxy system by promoting its curing rate.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Marta Sánchez-Cabezudo, Margarita Prolongo, Catalina Salom and Rosa Masegosa

Abstract  

The cure kinetics and morphology of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) modified with polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) using diaminodiphenylmethane (DDM) as hardener were investigated through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Isothermal curing measurements were carried out at 150, 120 and 80C. The kinetic parameters were obtained using the general autocatalytic chemically controlled model. The comparison of the kinetic data indicates that the presence of PVAc does not change the autocatalytic nature of the cure reaction. Two T g’s were observed in the fully cured samples of the modified systems. ESEM micrographies confirm the biphasic morphology.

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Abstract  

Kinetics of thermosetting polymers curing is difficult to study by isothermal methods based on the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique. The difficulty is due to the low sensitivity of the equipment for total reaction heat measurements during high temperature process. The aim of this paper is to display the equivalence between a dynamic model, the Ozawa method, and an isothermal isoconversional fit, which allows predicting the isothermal behavior of the resol resins cure through dynamic runs by DSC. In this work, lignin–phenol–formaldehyde and commercial phenol–formaldehyde resol resins were employed. In addition, the isothermal kinetic parameters for both resins were performed by means of transformation of the data obtained from the dynamic Ozawa method.

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