Authors:R. Williams, A. Hirsh, H. Meryman, and T. Takahashi
The rate of cytolysis in osmotically stressed unfertilized sea urchin eggs was analysed using a version of the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami
equation, and fit with high precision (r2>0.90) if the data sets were divided into two sectors. The slow process was first-order but the Avrami coefficient,n, for the initial fast reaction was 7. Suspecting that this might be a peculiarity of cells which are primed for climactic
behaviour, we examined the process in red cells, whose decay is known to be of first or lower order at low temperatures if
protected from excessive osmotic stress. Human red cells subjected to ‘thermal shock’, in which osmotically stressed cells
are cooled below +12°C, show a pattern almost identical to the stressed sea urchin eggs except thatn of the rapid process exceeded 10. Based on the geometrical implications of such a highn, we believe that this phenomenon reflects a stress failure in the cytoskeleton and has important ramifications in cryopreservation.
Authors:H Jee, E Ochi, T Sakurai, J-Y Lim, K Nakazato, and H Hatta
are relatively few studies on the positive effects of electrically induced eccentric contraction (EIEC) in hindlimb muscles.
αB-crystallin, one of heat shock proteins (HSPs), is closely associated with the cytoskeleton and tubulin to perform
A cohort of human red cells of the same age persists in the circulation for about 110 days without access to repair but disappears
over the next 10 days. Hyperosmotic stress accelerates the process exponentially. The kinetics are Avrami in all cases we
have examined, withn=2. We have previously modelled this as a stress failure in a viscoelastic cytoskeleton, but because of the two dimensional
long range order in the cytoskeleton, the data can also be interpreted as a state change in a crystalline material.
Authors:A. Aldaoude, A. Shoaib, E. Al-Shehadah, M. Rajeh, M. Jawhar, and M.I.E. Arabi
Scald caused by Rhynchosporium secalis, is an economically important disease found worldwide. In order to profile genes and pathways responding to R. seclais infection, leaf transcriptomes before and after fungus inoculation in susceptible barley were compared using cDNA-AFLP technique. Transcriptional changes of 144 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were observed, of which 18 have no previously described function. Functional annotation of the transcripts revealed a wide range of pathways including cell wall fortification, cytoskeleton construction and metabolic processes at different time points. Furthermore, the results of RT-PCR analysis on candidate genes, ABC transporters and lycine-specific demethylase were consistent with the cDNA-AFLP data in their expression patterns. Taken together, our data suggest that susceptible barley reprograms metabolic and biological processes to initiate a suitable response R. secalis infection.
Authors:Kinga Tóth, Orsolya Galamb, Sándor Spisák, Barnabás Wichmann, Ferenc Sipos, Katalin Leiszter, Jeannette Molnár, Béla Molnár, and Zsolt Tulassay
A DNS-metiláció szerepet játszik a daganatképződés korai szakaszában. Kimutatása szövetből, székletből és perifériás vérből egyaránt lehetséges. A szeptin-9 érzékeny metilációs jelző, amelyet több daganatban, mint emlő- és petefészekrákban, valamint neurológiai és hematológiai betegségekben is vizsgáltak. A szeptinproteinek fontos szerephez jutnak a sejtváz organizációjától az embrionális mintázat kialakulásáig. Napjainkban intenzív kutatások folynak a szeptin-9 fokozott metilációja és a vastagbélrák kialakulása közötti összefüggés felderítéseire.
We examined age-related changes in the human optic nerve (ON) from 10 postmortem donor eye samples (age: 21- to 94-year-old). In aged ON, many axons showed paucity of cytoskeleton, and possessed disorganized myelin that remained in the extracellular space. Lipid inclusions were detected in glia, as stained by oil red O, and these accumulated with aging. To identify and confirm which glial cell type possessed lipid inclusions, we performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Comparisons were made from TEM features and size of the glia immunolabeled with glial fibrillary acidic protein and glutamine synthetase (markers for astrocytes) and 2′,3′-cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase (a marker for oligodendrocytes). It was found that lipid inclusions were restricted to the astrocytes having larger perikarya than the oligodendrocytes (IHC) and possessing filaments in cytoplasm (TEM). These astrocytes also possessed myelin debris and it is thus likely that those inclusions originated from degenerated myelin of the ON axons. These data indicate that astrocytes play a role in phagocytosis and clearance of disorganized myelin in aging human ON.
Authors:A. Blehová, M. Bobák, J. Šamaj, and E. Hlinková
., Blervacq, A. S., Vasseur, J. and Hilbert, J. L. (2003): Removal of the fibrillar network surrounding Cichorium somatic embryos using cytoskeleton inhibitors: analysis of proteic components. —
Plant Sci. 150