, S. A., Wiswell, R. A.: Leg strength declines with advancing age despite habitual endurance exercise in active older adults. J. Strength Cond. Res., 2014, 28 (2), 504–513.
Franklin, B. A., Whaley, M. H., Howley
Authors:Wolfgang Glänzel, Rickard Danell and Olle Persson
Recent studies have reported on a steady decline of Sweden's relative citation impact in almost all science fields, above
all in the life sciences. The authors attempt to shed light on the observed decline in Swedish neuroscience through a detailed
citation analysis at different level of aggregations. Thus national citation data are decomposed to the institutional, departmental
and individual level. Both, the decomposition of national science indicators and changing collaboration patterns in Swedish
neuroscience reveal interesting details on the 'anatomy' of a decline.
Authors:Vincent Larivière, Alesia Zuccala and Éric Archambault
Although the writing of a thesis is a very important step for scientists undertaking a career in research, little information
exists on the impact of theses as a source of scientific information. Knowing the impact of theses is relevant not only for
students undertaking graduate studies, but also for the building of repositories of electronic theses and dissertations (ETD)
and the substantial investment this involves. This paper shows that the impact of theses as information sources has been generally
declining over the last century, apart from during the period of the ‘golden years’ of research, 1945 to 1975. There is no
evidence of ETDs having a positive impact; on the contrary, since their introduction the impact of theses has actually declined
more rapidly. This raises questions about the justification for ETDs and the appropriateness of writing monograph style theses
as opposed to publication of a series of peer-reviewed papers as the requirement for fulfilment of graduate studies.
With respect to the issue of whether the scientometric measurement of the decline of British science is an artifact of the specific database and underlying assumptions in methods, I argue that there are fewer analytical objections against measurement by usingSciSearch Online than against other methods (based on the fixed journal set and fractional counting). The measurement of international co-authorship, i.e. a network indicator, should not be confounded with measurement of performance of a single nation. The time series for the different subsets of UK-publications, which have been proposed, are given. None of the indicators can be shown to exhibit a trend (in contrast to a drift). The hypothesis of a decline has therefore to be rejected.
In previous articles, the author and his colleagues have shown that British science declined relative to other countries during the 1970 and more slowly during the early 1980s. More recently, the author examined figures for 1981–85 produced by the Information Science and Scientometrics Research Unit (ISSRU) and showed that they were consistent with other evidence on Britain's relative decline. However, those latter findings and the methodology used to derive them have been criticised byBraun and his colleagues at ISSRU, and byLeydesdorff andKealey. This paper begins by examining these criticisms to establish whether there are any grounds for revising the previous conclusion that British science has been slipping in relation to other countries. It then analyses the latest publication and citation statistics. It also presents new data on highly cited papers and on the national distribution of Nobel Prizes. The paper concludes that, although a few isolated indicators might be taken to suggest that British science has been growing in some absolute sense, the great weight of evidence points to a continuing relative decline.
After a rather comprehensive analysis of severalSCI based publication productivity indicators, it can be concluded that neither the view of a continuing decline
5 nor that of a remarkable increase
6 of British science in the first half of the eighties can be supported by valid bibliometric/scientometric arguments. The annual changes of any of the indicators considered had no statistical significance, and no trend distinguishable from the effect of random fluctuations could be observed. Some of the indicators showed a local minimum in 1982, the significance of which can be clarified only in the frame of a longer range study.All the abovementioned refers to British science in general. As a previous paper5 reported also a decline of British publication performance in some science fields and subfields these would have to be investigated one by one with the above described methodology. The present authors did investigate the research performance of British analytical chemistry which has been mentioned as a declining subfield.5 Our results however showed12 that analytical chemistry is a flourishing subfield in Britain.Finaly we mention thatNederhof in a recent study on the performance of six industrial nations in the field of biotechnology insisted that his findings contradict earlier reports4 showing UK losses in article productivity in basic research.13
University patenting has been heralded as a symbol of changing relations between universities and their social environments.
The Bayh–Dole Act of 1980 in the USA was eagerly promoted by the OECD as a recipe for the commercialization of university
research, and the law was imitated by a number of national governments. However, since the 2000s university patenting in the
most advanced economies has been on the decline both as a percentage and in absolute terms. In addition to possible saturation
effects and institutional learning, we suggest that the institutional incentives for university patenting have disappeared
with the new regime of university ranking. Patents and spin-offs are not counted in university rankings. In the new arrangements
of university–industry–government relations, universities have become very responsive to changes in their relevant environments.
The main thesis of the article is that the Eurozone (EMU) crisis is not the main problem of Europe, or the West, but the long-term decline in economic growth. Institutional and policy distortions of the EMU only accelerated the day of reckoning, when the inevitable cuts to the oversized public (mostly welfare) expenditures will have to made. They will be even more necessary given demographic changes. The process of adjustment has encountered a lot of political and social resistance that is going to increase further in the years to come. These difficulties stem largely from the psychological consequences of the prolonged lack of linkages between efforts and results in the welfare state as perceived by its beneficiaries. The resulting learned helplessness syndrome makes it very difficult to proceed with the necessary downward adjustment — an absolute “must” if the West is going to reaccelerate economic growth and come out of the present quagmire relatively unscathed. The economic future of the West thus raises many question marks.
A comprehensive multidisciplinary investigation of the reasons for the decline of Pinus halepensis forests in the Judea mountains
in Israel was carried out recently. Mineral content of the pine needles was determined using atomic absorption and neutron
activation techniques. A good correlation between these two techniques was obtained. It was found that neutron activation
is a very suitable technique for simultaneous determination of numerous elements in biological matter, whenever the facilities
of research reactor are available. Manganese content of sick needles was found to be two to three times higher than that of
healthy ones, pointing out a possible role of the manganese in the decline of the Pinus halepensis forest.