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In the hydrogeologically closed Carpathian Basin subsurface waters have particular importance in the salinization/alkalization processes. In the poorly-drained low-lying areas the capillary flow transports high amounts of water soluble salts from the shallow, „stagnant” groundwater with high salt concentration and unfavourable sodium-carbonate(bicarbonate) type ion composition to the overlying soil horizons. Due to the strongly alkaline soil solution, the Ca and Mg salts (mostly carbonates and bicarbonates) are not soluble and Na + became absolutely predominant in the migrating soil solution which leads to high ESP even at relatively low salt concentration. High Na + saturation of heavy-textured soils with high amount of expanding clay minerals results in unfavourable physical-hydrophysical properties and extreme moisture regime of these soils, which are their main ecological constrains and the limiting factors of their fertility, productivity and agricultural utility. The simultaneous hazard of waterlogging or overmoistening, and drought sensitivity in extensive lowland areas, sometimes in the same places within a short period, necessitates a precise, “double function” soil moisture control against their harmful ecological/economical/social consequences. Most of the environmental constrains (including salinity/alkalinity/sodicity) can be efficiently controlled: prevented, eliminated, or - at least - moderated. But this needs permanent care and proper actions: adequate soil and water conservation practices based on a comprehensive soil/land degradation assessment. It includes continuous registration of facts and changes (monitoring); exact and quantitative knowledge on the existing soil processes, their influencing factors and mechanisms.

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Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors: Csaba Centeri, Róbert Pataki, Zsolt Bíró, and Alexandra Császár

. Talajvédő gazdálkodás hegy- és dombvidéken FAO—UNEP—UNESCO, 1979. A Provisional Methodology for Soil Degradation Assessment. FAO. Rome. Farkas P., 1987. A

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