In his youth Bela III, king of Hungary (1172-1196) lived in Constantinople as the betrothed of the emperor Manuel Comnenus' daughter and was appointed to be heir to the Byzantine throne. There he was called Alexius probably owing to an oracle, according to which Manuel's successor's name would start with the letter alpha. However, when a son - also named Alexius - was born to Manuel, he had him crowned co-emperor and had the betrothal of Bela and Maria dissolved on the pretext of a ruling of the 1166 Synod of Constantinople, which banned marriage between relations by marrige to the seventh degree. It is this ruling that is referred to in a sentence in Cinnamus, which has been ignored this far because of the assumption that Bela and Maria were related in the eighth degree. As a matter of fact, they were related in the seventh degree by the marriage of the Hungarian king Stephen IV and Maria Comnena, daughter of Isaac Sebastokrator.
The analysis of polymorphism between 46 maize inbred lines with known genetic background and the classification of these lines in related groups was carried out by means of morphological, isoenzyme and genetic markers. The degree of relationship between the lines was determined using cluster analysis. Only a very limited extent of allele polymorphism could be detected in isoenzyme analyses. Nevertheless, on the basis of RAPD and SSR markers, all the lines could be distinguished from each other. Grouping lines into related groups it was found that, while the individual marker systems only partially reflected the actual relationships, a joint analysis of genetic markers and morphological data revealed a close correlation between the groups formed on the dendrogram and genetic backgrounds.
Authors:E. Nagy, G. Gyulai, Z. Szabó, Z. Hegyi and L. C. Marton
Studies involving morphological description with both dominant (RAPD) and codominant (SSR, isoenzyme) molecular markers were made on 28 maize inbred lines of known genetic background with a final aim of prediction of heterosis. The genetic distance and degree of relationship between the lines was determined using cluster analysis. Only a very limited extent of allele polymorphism could be detected in isoenzyme analyses as the 28 lines formed only 16 gel electrophoretic groups, indicating that certain lines had identical isoenzyme patterns. On the basis of RAPD and gene-specific microsatellite (SSR) markers, however, all the lines could be distinguished from each other. When the lines were grouped according to genetic background it was found that although the individual marker systems only partially reflected the actual relationships between the lines, a joint processing of the data, supplemented with morphological data, revealed a close correlation between the groups formed on the dendrogram and the genetic background.
A complex structure measure for social groups was established with a view to reflecting the degree of interaction within a social group. The quantitative degrees of relationship between two group members each and their distributions within the group are considered. These distributions can be characterized quantitatively on different hierarchical levels to which a specific meaning can be attributed. The complex structure measure is a combination of measures for the different hierarchical levels. A stratification of scientists based on the number of publications in a journal is reflected in the results obtained by the complex structure measure. Specific information is provided both by the complex structure measure and by the measure on different levels.
The use of genetic markers allows the study of polymorphism and genetic distances between maize lines in greater depth than can be achieved on the basis of phenotype and DUS traits. The analysis of polymorphism between 46 maize inbred lines with known genetic background and the classification of these lines in related groups was carried out by means of morphological description, isoenzyme analysis, RAPD analysis, and identification using gene-linked microsatellite (SSR) markers. The genetic distance or degree of relationship between the lines was determined using cluster analysis. Only a very limited extent of allele polymorphism could be detected in isoenzyme analyses; the 46 lines formed only 18 gel electrophoresis groups. Nevertheless, on the basis of RAPD and SSR markers, all the lines could be distinguished from each other. This was reflected by the PIC (polymorphism index content) values, which ranged from 0.04 to 0.55 (mean 0.27) for the various enzyme loci, while far higher values were obtained for RAPD and SSR markers (0.20–0.91, mean 0.61, and 0.54–0.90, mean 0.73, respectively). Due to the large number of lines, two lines, derived from each other or from common parents, were chosen from each related group as the basis for grouping the lines according to genetic background. It was found that, while the individual marker systems only partially reflected the actual relationships between the lines, a joint processing of the genetic markers, supplemented with morphological data, revealed a close correlation between the groups formed on the dendrogram and the genetic background.
In this paper, morphological and anatomical properties of Iris pamphylica and Iris masia were compared and the degrees of relationship among them were determined. Also, morphological and anatomical properties of the two subspecies (I. masia subsp. masia and I. masia subsp. dumaniana) of I. masia were detected. I. pamphylica and subsp. dumaniana are endangered endemic geophytes of Turkey. Morphological properties of various organs of the taxa such as scape, bulb, rhizomes, leaves, flowers, fruit and seeds were given. Subsp. dumaniana is separated from subsp. masia with the differences of falls, standards, colour styles and vein colours. In anatomical studies, cross-sections of roots, scapes, leaves and surface sections of the leaves of these taxa were taken. Some different (the structure of pith region and xylem strands numbers in the roots, vascular bundles and micropapilla status in the scapes, leaf outline structure, the presence of sclerenchyma cap at phloem poles of vascular bundles in the scape, extends to both epidermis of sclerenchyma cap, absence and presence of keels, layer numbers of palisade and spongy parenchyma and the presence of bulliform cells in the upper epidermis of leaves) and similar characters (three-sided thickening of the endodermal cells, stomata and mesophyll types, there is sclerenchyma cap in the vascular bundles of leaf and at the corner of the leaf, there is sheath bundle around the vascular bundles, the cells in the centre of mesophyll and crystal types and there are two rows of the vascular bundles in the mesophyll) were found. Length and width of stomata in the upper and lower surfaces of leaves were measured and stomata index were calculated. The leaves of taxa have xeromorphic structure. Many differences were seen in the anatomical and morphological characters of I. masia subsp. dumaniana. So, it was suggested that I. masia subsp. dumaniana might be upgraded to the species category.
Authors:D. R. Amancio, M. G. V. Nunes, O. N. Oliveira Jr. and L. da F. Costa
, but also on the degreeofrelationship and overlap with the investigation being reported. For all the papers strongly similar or related to a current investigation should be read, and potentially cited. However, with the limited time available to any