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The warrior queen

The cult of Hellenistic female rulers as the basis of their symbolic participation in military acts

Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Author: Lucyna Kostuch

. The deification of Berenice I: Theocr. 15. 106–108; 17. 45–50, 123; Callix. FGrHist 627 F 2 (34); Lyc. Rheg. FGrHist 570 F 16; see the discussion in Fraser, P. M. : Ptolemaic Alexandria . Vol. I. Oxford 1972, 224; Berenice and Cynisca: Posidipp

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Suetonius describes the lives of Caesars according to categories such as antecedents, birth, career, achievements, morals, religion, appareance, and death. In my paper I examine the function of religion in The Deified Augustus of Suetonius. Firstly I list the places where phenomena concerning religion appear. Then I analyse the attitude of Augustus towards religions; e.g. he took dreams very seriously, and regarded certain auspices and omens as infallible. Suetonius treats the religious beliefs of Augustus long because he regards them as very important. Augustus wanted to enhance the sacred character of his principate, therefore he acquired membership in several priesthoods.

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Архетипний образ вогню в лінгвопросторі українських паремій і замовлянь

The Archetypal Image of Fire in Language Space of Ukrainian Paroemias and Verbal Folk Magic

Studia Slavica
Authors: А. В. Висоцький and Ю. С. Макарець

This paper deals with the linguocultural analysis of the semantic content of the archetypal symbol of fire. It is one of the deep mental formations, a manifestation of the collective subconscious, the generic memory, so its shades of meaning are best expressed in micro- contexts that retain stereotypical associations and evaluations for a certain ethnos as well as in the linguistic formulas of word magic, which is inherent in primitive consciousness.

Such are the texts of paroemias and verbal folk magic, on the basis of which the research is conducted. Although ancient Ukrainians knew the cult of fire and thought that it had a divine power, the analyzed linguistic microcontexts did not show the lingualization of deification of fire. Fire appears as an ambivalent element, destructive but simultaneously life-giving, with the predominance of negative marking. Fire mostly is opposed to water, which is also an ambivalent element but with a positive beginning. Ukrainian paroemiology predominantly testifies stereotypical associative similarity of fire and misfortune or trial, more rarely – of fire and strong destructive feelings or restless nature. Analyzed Ukrainian proverbs do not contain Christian understanding of fire, only ancient, pagan ideas about it. In verbal magic, fire is a part of homeopathic magic, an element that can scare off a dis- ease or burn it, that is, cure the like with the like. More rarely, fire is a part of love magic based on similarity of natural fire and the fire of feelings. Of particular interest in this con- text is the image of ‘fiery bugalo’ that burns, causing a love fever. This image is connected with the cult of the seductive serpent, a mythical creature that can install a ‘fire of love’ in the heart of a man, and appears to women as tempting young man.

The mediator of the idea of fire is also the word-concept ‘candle’. This symbol im- plements the semantics of faith and mind. In religious tradition, it becomes the emblem of the church and the spiritual light. Paroemiological units mostly attest to its use in combi- nation with the word-concept ‘devil’. Such microcontexts can be explained by the ability of people to pick up and summarize the paradoxical manifestations of everyday life. Ethno- graphic studies suggest that the semantics of sun and lightning also intersect with the sym- bolic meaning of fire, although this is not confirmed by the analyzed paroemological micro- contexts.

The cognitive basis of such symbolization are the mechanisms of associative assimila- tion and comparison through which the primeval people cognized and structured the world. The symbol of fire becoming the basis of paroemological and magical microcontexts is sometimes not lingualized directly and manifests itself through typical scenarios with pred- icates to smoke, to burn, to scorch, etc.

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.” Plu. Alex . 14. 7: «Ἀνίκητος εἶ ὦ παῖ». “Boy, you are invincible.” 26 About the deification of Alexander see at least Badian, E. : The deification of Alexander the Great. In Dell, H. J. (ed

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Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Authors: Chaogetu, Sarina, and Ágnes Birtalan

of Deification’ ( Fengshen bang 封神榜, Fengshen yanyi 封神演义) written by Xu Zhonglin 許仲琳 (?–1560). 21 Zhangjiakou 张家口 is a city located in northwest Hebei province. 22 About the origin, typology, genres and motifs of khuuriin ülger , cf. Chaogetu

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and the Honour of Gods Twenty Five Mythological Drafts]. (Romanian translation by G. Anania). Bucharest 1998, 65–71 (about the death and deification of Heracles by fire on the Mount Oeta), 84–99 (Celtic myths), 100–116, 145–151 (esp. 148–149 about the

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the Imperial period, the deification of the emperor following his funeral as decreed by the Senate. 18 The parting elements between different types of dedication, consecration or sacrifice, were not as efficient in the

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highest tone, but their importance impels Virgil to continue his treatment of them also in the next eclogue, the fifth, in which the palingenesis of the world is the effect not of a birth but rather of Daphnis' death, followed by deification, in a path

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