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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors:
Gabrielle Souza Rocha
,
A. Fonseca
,
Michelle Rodrigues
,
F. Dantas
,
A. Caldeira-de-Araujo
, and
R. Santos

) Suppression of food deprivation-induced high-rate wheel running in rats. Physiol. Behav. 48 , 339–342. Russel J. C. Suppression of food deprivation-induced high-rate wheel running in

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The paper analyses multi-dimensional poverty also called exclusion with the help of a large national sample. The paper shows the long-term trends covering three decades of increasing income inequalities, the decade-long decrease and slow upturn of personal incomes, and the changes in various poverty measures. The second part offers an approach to multiple deprivation or exclusion as the simultaneous presence of various aspects of objective and subjective poverty, and gives an account of the situation of the families that may be considered excluded. The third part analyzes the dynamics of poverty as a lifetime and as a shorter-term experience, and also the future expectations of the poor. The conclusion is that there is a small and not very visible group split off the 'first society' that, without public help is condemned to lasting exclusion.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors:
B. Mornagui
,
A. Grissa
,
M. Duvareille
,
C. Gharib
,
A. Kamoun
,
S. El-Fazaa
, and
N. Gharbi

368 El-Fazaa, S., Gharbi, N., Kamoun, A., Somody; L. (2000) Vasopressin and A1 noradrenaline turnover during food or water deprivation in the rat. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. part C 126, 129

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investigation. Deprivation occurs when people are not allowed to do something that they desire. In addictions, deprivation may occur, for example, when somebody wishes to consume drugs, but is not allowed to do so. Deprivation may also occur when

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, J. G. (1976) Unit activity in rat septal nuclei during water deprivation, drinking and rehydration. In: DeFrance, J. F. (ed.) The Septal Nuclei. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 229–239. Bridge J. G

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The results of our empirical researches carried out in North-East Hungarian region is analyzed and compared with national and international experiences. During last decade, we examined social and health status of Gipsy/Roma people living in this region in frame of researches, two of them were proceed at county, others at settlement level. We present our results grouped around three problems, which gives a chance for empirical testing of hypothesis of other researches reflected on this problems. Typical sample’s characteristics of Hajdúböszörmény study made feasible to analyze the statements on correlation between underclass situation and ethnicity. Our results proved the statement that the poverty makes ethnical feature but not only Roma can be ranked among underclassed. In our study we deeply analyze coherence of ethnicity and poverty; besides of income poverty we touch the housing poverty, deprivation in wealth and living conditions, and the problems of social-political poverty. The health state was studied through the subjective health picture, utilization of the health care system, satisfaction with care services and the list of most frequently complaints, diseases.We aspired in our study to give structural and cultural explanation of examined phenomenon, moreover to present correlations, although because of research methods we rather analyzed successes of structural effects.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors:
H.Q. Zhao
,
L. Wang
,
J. Hong
,
X.Y. Zhao
,
X.H. Yu
,
L. Sheng
,
C.Z. Hang
,
Y. Zhao
,
A.A. Lin
,
W.H. Si
, and
F.S. Hong

Salt stress impaired Mn imbalance and resulted in accumulation of ROS, and caused oxidative stress to plants. However, very little is known about the oxidative damage of maize roots caused by exposure to a combination of both salt stress and Mn deprivation. Thus the main aim of this study was to determine the effects of a combination of salt stress and Mn deprivation on antioxidative defense system in maize roots. Maize plants were cultivated in Hoagland’s media. They were subjected to 80 mM NaCl administered in the Mn-present Hoagland’s or Mn-deficient Hoagland’s media for 14 days. The findings indicated that the growth and root activity of maize seedlings cultivated in a combination of both salt stress and Mn deprivation were significantly inhibited; the compatible solute accumulation, malondialdehyde, carbonyl, 8-OHdG, and ROS were higher than those of the individual salt stress or Mn deprivation as expected. Nevertheless, the antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase and antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, glutathione and thiol were lower than those of the individual salt stress or Mn deprivation. In view of the fact that salt stress impaired Mn nutrition of maize seedlings, the findings suggested that Mn deprivation at the cellular level may be a contributory factor to salt-induced oxidative stress and related oxidative damage of maize roots.

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The effect of sleep deprivation on male runners (age 18.1±0.35) and volleyball players (age 17.8±0.36) has not been investigated. Therefore, we studied the possible effect of sleep deprivation in the sportsmen.The athletes performed spirometric tests at rest and then incremental exercise test on ergometer following one night sleep and one night (25–30 h) sleeplessness.Several standard measurements of spirometric function showed no significant change following sleep loss. Sleep loss raised resting oxygen uptake (VO 2 ) in the runners and resting carbon dioxide production (VCO 2 ) in both the runners and the volleyball players (p<0.05). However, it left heart rate (HR), respiratory quotient (R), minute ventilation (VE) and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO 2 ) unchanged at rest in both groups. Sleep loss decreased time to exhaustion in the volleyball players (p<0.01). In the runners and the volleyball players, sleep loss did not alter exercise values of HR, VO 2 , VCO 2 , R and SaO 2 , but it reduced exercise VE (p<0.05).We suggest that one night sleep deprivation may reduce exercise performance by decreasing exercise VE and time to exhaustion. We also indicate that sleep loss may decrease more the performance of volleyball players than that of runners.

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The aims of the present study were to determine (a) the effectiveness of an attenuated live Cryptobia salmositica vaccine; (b) the effects of food deprivation on the immune response and its duration in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) immunised with a live C. salmositica vaccine or with a killed Aeromonas salmonicida vaccine. The fish were divided into three groups (I, II and III; 14 fish per group), those in Groups I and II were under food deprivation (0.40% of body weight), while Group III fish were fed to satiety. The study showed that the attenuated strain of C. salmositica did not cause anaemia and disease, and the fish were protected from clinical disease when they were challenged with virulent parasites. Parasitaemia in all fish vaccinated and challenged with virulent C. salmositica fluctuated and was relatively low; however, fish in Group III had higher parasitaemia than those in Groups I and II between weeks 8 and 14. The numbers of activated neutrophils increased [nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) assay] after immunisation with both Cryptobia and Aeromonas vaccines and they remained high throughout the experiment. Antibody production (ELISA values) increased after vaccination and were slightly higher in Group III. ELISA titres against A. salmonicida increased after vaccination and decreased after 5 weeks. The titres increased again after the vaccinated fish were given booster, and they were higher than those in the first vaccinated fish.

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1600 de Groot, C. C., van den Boogaard, R., Marcelis, L. F. M., Harbinson, J., Lambers, H. (2003) Contrasting effects of N and P deprivation on the regulation of photosynthesis in tomato

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