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transformation of the gene encoding the laccase production into A. niger , the AFB1 degradation rate was 55%. Pure laccase enzyme from T. versicolor was applied for the detoxification of AFB1 by Zeinvand-Lorestani et al. [ 20 ] as well, and 67% toxin was

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., Sontag, G., Stidl, R., Ehrlich, V., Kundi, M. & Knasmuller, S. (2008): Detoxification of patulin and ochratoxin A, two abundant mycotoxins, by lactic acid bacteria. Fd Chem. Toxicol. , 46 , 1398

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The genus Rhizobium colonizes in leguminous plants by symbiotic relationship and enriches soil nitrogen through the formation of the root nodule. Legumes are the appropriate crops for the recovery of marginal lands and they can easily grow in adverse climatic condition. Rhizobium sp. VMA301 was isolated from the root nodules of V. mungo , grown in arsenic contaminated field. The LC 50 value of arsenite for VMA301 was found to be 1.8 mM. Sixteen differentially expressed proteins were identified using RP-HPLC and MALDI ToF mass spectrometry from arsenite induced whole cell lysate soluble proteins. It is also found that nine proteins were up-regulated and seven proteins were down-regulated in comparison to the control group (cells grown without arsenite). These differential protein expressions mitigate the toxic effect of arsenite and stimulate the detoxification process.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: Marc Lemmens, Andrea Koutnik, Barbara Steiner, Hermann Buerstmayr, Franz Berthiller, Rainer Schuhmacher, Frank Maier, and Wilhelm Schäfer

Our main goal in this contribution was to investigate whether Fhb1 also governs resistance towards NIV, a trichothecene structurally related to DON. Here we report preliminary results on a first series of experiments done to clarify this issue. Using mutants with a disrupted trichodiene synthase, it is confirmed that NIV and DON production are fungal virulence factors important for the spread of symptoms in the wheat ear but not for the induction of Fusarium head blight. Both toxins affect the probability that symptoms spread. It is demonstrated that NIV is phytotoxic on wheat ears and that the purified toxin can induce symptoms identical to those described for DON. Fhb1 protects the wheat line against both NIV and DON. The mechanism of NIV resistance is not known but is probably different from the detoxification mechanism of DON. We could not confirm that Fhb1 increases resistance to both NIV- and DON-producing Fusarium strains.

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Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Authors: Clare Wilkins, Rafael G. dos Santos, Jordi Solá, Marc Aixalá, Pep Cura, Estefanía Moreno, Miguel Ángel Alcázar-Córcoles, Jaime E. C. Hallak, and José Carlos Bouso

–20 mg/kg doses ( Schep, Slaughter, Galea, & Newcombe, 2016 ). We present here the case of a successful detoxification from long-term methadone dependence using low, repeated, and increasing doses of ibogaine. Case Presentation

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Enzyme assays were carried out to study the influence of Nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV) and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk) infection on the activity levels of pesticide detoxification enzymes, viz. carboxyl esterase (CE) and mixed function oxidase (MFO) in Helicoverpa armigera . HearNPV at LC 50 reduced the MFO activity by 12.0–13.5% and CE activity by 14.88–15.25% at 96 hours after treatment. Btk at LC 50 reduced the MFO activity by 4.17–4.27% and CE activity by 5.77–6.55%. The joint application of HearNPV and cypermethrin at LC 50 +LC 50 resulted in suppression of MFO activity by 15.08–17.35% and CE activity by 16.39–17.30%. Combined treatment of Btk and cypermethrin resulted in suppression of MFO by 4.24–6.72 and CE by 8.42–8.97%, respectively.

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lactonohydrolase responsible for the detoxification of zearalenone: enzyme purification and gene cloning. Biochem. J. 365, 1-6. A novel lactonohydrolase responsible for the detoxification of zearalenone: enzyme purification and gene

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: N. Tsibakhashvili, L. Mosulishvili, E. Kirkesali, I. Murusidze, M. Frontasyeva, S. Pavlov, I. Zinicovscaia, P. Bode, and Th. van Meerten


Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to study accumulation of Hg(II) and Cr(VI) ions in Arthrobacter globiformis 151B, a gram-positive, Cr(VI)-reducer aerobic bacterium isolated from basalt sample taken from the most polluted region in the Republic of Georgia (Kazreti). Experiments were focused on (1) accumulation of Hg(II) in bacterial cells; (2) accumulation of Cr(VI) in A. globiformis 151B in the presence of Hg(II) and (3) effects of Hg(II) and mixture of Cr(VI)–Hg(II) on the elemental composition of bacteria. It was shown that this bacterial strain possesses uptake mechanisms by which mercury toxicity can be reduced in environment and that accumulation of Cr(VI) in A. globiformis 151B is much higher in the presence of Hg(II) ions. Accumulation of Hg(II), similar to the Cr(VI) accumulation, follows well the Lengmuir–Freundlich model. NAA measurements showed increased content of Fe in bacteria under Hg and Cr action, suggesting that Fe-containing biomolecules play a decisive role in detoxifying of heavy metals by A. globiformis 151B. A concentration of 5000 μg/L of Hg(II) was found to be critical for A. globiformis 151B. At this concentration of Hg(II) the concentrations of both essential (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Mn, Zn) and some non-essential elements (Rb, Sb, Sc, As) changed drastically along with a decrease of the biomass of bacteria by a factor of two. One may assume that under this high exposure to Hg(II) the structure of the bacterial cell wall was destroyed.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Ágnes Gallé, Zalán Czékus, Krisztina Bela, Edit Horváth, Jolán Csiszár, and Péter Poór

. , Gallé , R. , Csiszár , J. , Szabados , L. , Erdei , L. , Gallé, Á. ( 2016 ) Physiological and molecular responses to heavy metal stresses suggest different detoxification mechanism of Populus deltoides and P. x canadensis . J. Plant Physiol

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23 809 Emri, T., Pócsi, I., Szentirmai, A.: Phenoxyacetic acid induces glutathione-dependent detoxification and depletes the glutathione pool in Penicillium

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