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Being heavily energy dependent, it is not much of a surprise that Europe pays special attention to reducing the use of fossil fuels. Each one of the ten new member states is characterized by relatively low per capita energy consumption and relatively low energy efficiency, and the share of renewables in their energy mix tends to be low, too. The paper examines the problem when policy measures create a decrease in environmental capital instead of an increase. In this case it hardly seems justified to talk about environmental protection. The authors describe a case of a Hungarian rapeseed oil mill which would not be of too much interest on its own but given that almost all similar plants went bankrupt, there are some important lessons to learn from its survival. The enterprise the authors examined aimed at establishing a micro-regional network. They completed a brown-field development to establish a small plant on the premises of a former large agricultural cooperative. By partnering with the former employees and suppliers of the onetime cooperative, they enjoyed some benefits which all the other green-field businesses focusing on fuel production could not. The project improved food security, energy security and population retention as well.

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[REPORT on the conference held on 21-23 April 2004 at BOKU, the University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences in Vienna, Austria]

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A kutatás-fejlesztés (K+F) az európai integráció kezdeteitől fogva kiemelt szerepet játszott a közösség életében; jelentősége az utóbbi néhány évben – a lisszaboni stratégia meghirdetését követően – fokozódott. A közösségi kutatásokban mindig is meghatározó részük volt a keretprogramoknak, amelyeket azzal a céllal hoztak létre, hogy összehangolják a nemzeti K+F-tevékenységeket, illetve hatékony módon válasszák szét a közösségi szintű és a nemzeti keretek között megvalósítható feladatokat. A közösség már igen korán felismerte az élettudományok jelentőségét, így nem véletlen, hogy azok a második legnagyobb finanszírozású prioritássá váltak az utolsó két keretprogramban. Jelen tanulmány történeti és egyben elemző, értékelő áttekintést ad a közösségi K+F-politika, -tevékenység fejlődéséről a kezdetektől napjainkig. Részletesen megvizsgálja, hogy a keretprogramok szerkezetének, feltételrendszerének, szabályainak és prioritásainak változása hogyan követte a közösségi kutatásokkal szemben támasztott társadalmi, gazdasági igények alakulását. Nagy hangsúlyt fektet az élettudományi kutatások fejlődésének elemzésére, annak bemutatására, hogy ezek mennyiben feleltek meg a kor kihívásainak, hogyan épültek be a keretprogramok rendszerébe. A tanulmány további kutatási területe annak vizsgálata, hogy a magyar kutatók milyen eredményesen tudtak bekapcsolódni a közösségi kutatásokba, kiemelten a keretprogramok élettudományi területén. E kérdés megválaszolásához elengedhetetlen volt az európai nyilvános és zárt adatbázisokban rendelkezésre álló adatállomány áttekintése, feldolgozása és elemzése. A korábbi, hasonló tárgyú munkákkal szemben, a mostani elemzés nem a politikai vagy a tudományos háttérre koncentrál, hanem a közösségi kutatásoknak a fenntartható társadalmi, gazdasági fejlődésben, a versenyképességben, a közös politikák támogatásában játszott szerepére, az integráció elmélyülésének folyamatára; emellett az 50-es évektől kezdve napjainkig teljes körű áttekintést ad e területről, ismertetve a legújabb kezdeményezéseket és a jövőbeni elképzeléseket. Újszerű a tanulmány a feldolgozott témakör – az élettudományok fejlődésének, a keretprogramban elfoglalt helyének vizsgálata – tekintetében, továbbá a magyar részvétel adatainak feldolgozása és elemzése vonatkozásában is az 5. és 6. keretprogram élettudományi kutatásai területén.

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Absztrakt:

A tanulmány az uniós források felhasználásának eredményességét vizsgálja a magyar közoktatás terén, és annak okát kutatja, hogy mi állhat a kudarcok mögött. A külföldi és hazai fejlesztéspolitikai szakirodalom alapján sorra veszi a lehetséges okokat, valamint a tipikus hibákat. A tanulmány végeredményben arra a következtetésre jut, hogy nem pusztán a nem megfelelő célkitűzésekkel, eszközök kiválasztásával, az implementáció nehézségeivel és az értékelés elmaradásával magyarázhatjuk az eredmények elmaradását. Eleve a kiindulás tűnik elhibázottnak, hiszen a közoktatás, ami egy diszkrecionális döntésekkel teli, tranzakcióintenzív terület, eredendően nem illik bele a nagy volumenű, rutinizált adminisztratív úton ellenőrzött projektek logikájába. Az Európai Unió fejlesztéspolitikáját újra kellene gombolni.

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EU Cohesion Policy transfers have the effect of enabling the least wealthy regions to achieve higher levels of investment in human and physical capital than would otherwise be the case, so helping to improve their long-term competitiveness. There is evidence of significant growth in GDP and a considerable reduction in unemployment compared with the case without subsidies. However, beyond its quantitative effects, the added value of the policy arises from other aspects, like the contribution made to national regional development policies by factors such as multi-annual programming frameworks, partnership, evaluation, co-operation between regions, and its political added value. These impacts have clearly contributed to the ‘Europeanisation’ of objectives, contents and operation of national development policies.

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Romanian development policy and planning always had a major goal, namely turning Romania from a rural country into a prosperous urbanized one. Rurality is associated with backwardness, poverty and with a not really proudly accepted past. In the present paper I try to identify the main periods of Romanian planning, and I also use statistical demographic time series in order to describe the present state and the trends of urbanization in Romania. Planning, when it was applied, had a decisive effect on Romanian urbanization, while lack of planning or inappropriate planning is marked by stops in increase of urban share.

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This paper reviews the progress of banking reforms in China. Since 2002, the reform strategy has relied on publicly-financed bailouts, implementation of international best practices in bank governance and regulation, and listing of major banks in Hong Kong. The three largest banks have been stabilised, but we find little reason to expect this to be sustainable. Prudential indicators are comparable to international averages, but this is an outcome of bailouts and ongoing credit boom. Reforms of bank governance and regulatory frameworks that would alter banker’s incentives are implemented in a selective manner; principles that concentrate key powers in the centre are implemented vigorously, whereas those that require independent boards and regulators are ignored. Selectiveness of institutional reform means that the largest banks remain under state control and can be used as means of development policy for the better or the worse.

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Abstract  

In recent years, the topic of knowledge production has been widely investigated in the advanced countries. However, the process by which knowledge is produced in the developing countries has not been fully explored or characterized. In Korea, the science and engineering fields strongly reflect systems of knowledge production in the universities and demonstrate the dynamics of systems of innovation for knowledge production. Through using a case study including data for knowledge production, in the field of information and telecommunication, the following general trends were observed. Firstly, there has been a trend towards increasing the capabilities for knowledge production, via domestic and foreign collaboration. Secondly, there has been an increasing trend towards the diversification of knowledge sources such as university-industry, and university-public research institutes. Finally, the establishment of a nation's knowledge base is influenced by governmental research and development policies.

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Deconstructing the diverse meaning behind the common metaphor “Little America”, this paper explores widely disparate ethnic identity conceptions and inter-ethnic relations in two regions of Transylvania, showing them as dependent on the ways in which each region was integrated into changing patterns of global labor. Regional ethnic identity and relations in the Jiu Valley coal producing region and in the mixed agro-industrial Fǎgǎraş zone vary greatly. In the former, ethnic identity was downplayed and inter-ethnic relations always kept on an even keel owing to the particular process of regional settlement and the common integration of the region’s ethnic groups into the hard coal industry that dominated the Valley from the middle of the 18th century. In the latter region, ethnic relations were frequently tense due to a highly discrete ethnic-based division of labor and organization of political hierarchy. Despite these differences, citizens of each region expressed their ethnic dynamic through use of the “Little America” metaphor. However, in the Jiu Valley this referred to alleged ethnic peace of cooperating national groups, while in Fǎgǎraş this notion referred to the dream of struggling for social mobility and differentiation. The paper thus shows how such basic ethnic conceptions, shaped by the treatment of regional labor in successive phases of the global economy, influence a wide range of differing attitudes toward diverse social and political processes, including socialist development policies and the modern global labor market.

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The notion of competitiveness figures nowadays frequently and centrally both in economic policy and in regional development. Current economic development programmes, in short, have been directly responsible for the increasing attention devoted to analyses of regional competitiveness. At the same time, there is a growing consensus that a single notion of competitiveness can be found to describe processes of the globalising economy for companies (microlevel), industrial sectors and regions (mesolevel) as well as for national economies (macrolevel). The standard (common) concept of competitiveness has been partly developed in order to serve as a widely accepted theoretical definition, which can be measured and also be used by economic development policies. Competitiveness is intimately bound up with successful economic development. This study reviews the conceptual background and some special aspects of competitiveness and also looks more closely at one of the basic models of enhancing regional competitiveness. First, some aspects of the standard notion of competitiveness are discussed. Then some key indicators of the competitiveness of Hungarian regions will be investigated. I shall end by introducing the so-called pyramid model, which has been designed to measure and improve regional competitiveness.

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