The purpose of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of improving the synchronisation of lambing after oestrus synchronisation and artificial insemination (AI). To this end, low doses of dexamethasone 21-isonicotinate (DEX) alone or in combination with prostaglandin F
(PG) were used in five treated groups (n = 20 each) and one control group (n = 136) of Chios ewes. On day 143 of pregnancy 1.5 mg DEX was given in Group 5, while on day 146 the following treatments were applied: 0.0375 mg PG in Groups 4 and 5, and 1, 1.5 and 2 mg of DEX in ewes of Groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The control ewes received no treatment. The 1.5 and 2 mg dose of DEX was more effective in synchronising labour as regards the treatment to lambing interval and the proportion of ewes that gave birth within 3 days. However, obstetrical manipulations were needed, and dead lambs were born when 2 mg DEX was used. It was concluded that lambing can be safely synchronised in Chios ewes with 1.5 mg DEX given on day 146, without affecting the viability of lambs and without parturition complications.
Previously, we have shown that the activity of noradrenergic nerve fibres increased and the steroid content changed in porcine ovaries with dexamethasone-(DXM-) induced polycystic status. To better understand the role of the ovarian nerves in the formation of cystic status, the morphology and steroidogenic activity of the ovaries of DXM-treated gilts after denervation of the gonads were investigated in this study. Ovarian denervation was performed on day 3 of the first studied oestrous cycle and then, on days 7–21 of the cycle, DXM was administered. Following neurectomy and DXM treatment, cysts, medium-sized follicles and corpora lutea were not present, while the number of small-sized follicles increased. Denervation and DXM application led to a reduction in the number of dopamine-β-hydroxylase- and/or neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive nerve fibres. The concentrations of progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone and oestradiol-17β in the follicular fluid and/or in the wall of small-sized follicles of the experimental gilts were lower than in the controls. A similar result was demonstrated for P450scc, 3β-HSD and P450arom protein contents in the small follicles. Our data showed that DXM was not able to stimulate the formation of cysts in denervated porcine ovaries, indicating that the ovarian peripheral nerves might participate in the aetiopathogenesis of polycystic status.
In contrast to most of the soluble cytokine receptor antagonists properties, the soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) occurring in various body fluids of healthy persons and patients with various diseases is an agonist. The enhancing effect is due to its ability to form complex with IL-6 and to bind to gp130 making constitutively IL-6 receptor negative cells responsive for IL-6. The generation as well as the functional role of soluble IL-6 receptor is poorly understood. Earlier, we found that the sIL-6R levels in sera of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were higher than those of the control group measured by ELISA sandwich technology. In the present study we detected different levels of sIL-6R in the supernatants of lymphocyte cultures of healthy persons and patients with RA as well as SLE. Moreover, we found, that in vitro dexamethasone treatment stimulated generation of sIL-6R in both healthy persons and in active SLE, while it strongly suppressed production of sIL-6R in both RA groups. At mRNA level, we found that in SLE both the IL-6R mRNA encoding the membrane spanning and alternatively spliced (soluble) variants increased. Surprisingly, the strong decrease of sIL6R protein in RA was not found at mRNA level.
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of drugs used in the treatment of endotoxaemia on disseminated intravascular coagulation, cytokine levels and adenosine deaminase activities in endotoxaemic rats. Rats were divided into seven groups. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was injected into all groups, including the positive control group. The other six groups received the following drugs: enrofloxacin (ENR), flunixin meglumine (FM), low-dose dexamethasone (DEX), high-dose DEX, ENR + FM + low-dose DEX, and ENR + FM + high-dose DEX. After the treatments, serum and plasma samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 and 48 hours (h). A coagulometer was used to determine the levels of coagulation values, while ELISA was used to assay serum cytokines and adenosine deaminase (ADA). Low-dose DEX alone and combined treatments depressed the levels of cytokines and ADA (from 371 to 70 IU/L at 6 h) significantly and inhibited the decrease of coagulation values (antithrombin from 67 to 140% at 6 h, fibrinogen from 54 to 252 mg/dL at 6 h). In summary, FM + high-dose DEX may be the preferred treatment of endotoxaemia because of its highest effectiveness. FM plus high-dose DEX may be a new therapy for endotoxaemic domestic animals.
Inflammation and oxidative stress are important pathways in the development of liver fibrosis following biliary obstruction.Aim: To evaluate the effects of low dose dexamethasone and chitosan, a natural compound with no side-effects, on liver damage caused by bile duct ligation in rats.Materials and methods: Fifty female Wistar rats, randomly and equally divided in 5 groups: I (SHAM) underwent only laparotomy, II (BDL) with bile duct ligation, III (DEX) 0.125 mg/kg dexamethasone i.m. daily, IV (CS) 1 mg/kg chitosan by gavage and group V (DEX+CS), both substances. After six days, the following parameters were assessed from liver homogenates: malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls (PC), reduced glutathione (GSH), total SH groupings, nitric oxide (NO), and from plasma: MDA, γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and total bilirubin (TB). A histopathological examination was performed using some of the elements of the Knodell Histological Activity Index.Results: BDL significantly increases the levels of MDA, liver enzymes, and the necro-inflammatory score compared to the sham group and it decreases the antioxidant capacity. DEX protects against lipid peroxidation and improves the antioxidant capacity, but it is not able to protect the hepatocytes. Chitosan significantly decreases (p<0.05) the levels of MDA (0.07±0.01 vs 0.10±0.01 nmoles/mg protein BDL group, p=0.027) and also ALT, TB, GGT and reduces liver necrosis and inflammation (2.75±0.95 vs 1±0, p<0.05). Both CS and DEX reduce the level of NO significantly.Conclusion: BDL induces severe oxidative stress damage after six days already. Chitosan proved very efficient in protecting the hepatocytes against oxidative stress, a fact supported by the histological findings.
Previous experimental data suggest that steroids might have protective effects during hypoxic/ischemic injury of various organs. In this study, the association between dexamethason (Dexa) treatment and the anti-apoptotic SGK-1 was tested in ischemic renal injury. In vitro, HK-2 cells were exposed to 24 h hypoxia, and the effect of Dexa incubation on SGK-1 expression / activation and on cell death was studied. In an in vivo rat model of unilateral renal IR, animals were treated with Dexa, and serum renal function parameters, tissue injury and SGK-1 expression and localization were examined after different reperfusion times (2 h, 4 h and 24 h). Dexa at a dose of 2 mg/L exerted a protective effect on cell survival assessed by LDH release and vital staining paralleled by marked up-regulation of SGK-1. In rats, 2 mg/kg Dexa treatment 24 h prior to ischemia resulted in less severe tissue injury and ameliorated urea nitrogen levels 24 h after reperfusion. Furthermore, SGK-1 expression and phosphorylation were higher in Dexa animals demonstrated by Western blot and immunofluorescence technique. Our results provide novel data on the signalling mechanism of Dexa under hypoxia / ischemia and further support that Dexa emerges as an attractive pharmacological agent for the prevention of ischemic injury.
Barbera, M., Fierabracci, V., Novelli, M., Bombara, M., Masiello, P., Bergamini, E., De Tata, V. (2001) Dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance and pancreatic adaptive response in aging rats are not modified by oral vanadyl sulfate treatment.
) was found to be effective in the cases of pelvic inflammatory disease [ 4 ] while, CIP and dexamethasone (DXM) otic drops are used to treat outer ear infections in adults and children and acute (suddenly occurring) middle ear infections in children
phosphorylation at serine residues. Akt has several roles, such as glucose transportation, glycogen synthesis, protein synthesis, lipogenesis, and liver gluconeogenesis inhibition [ 8 , 15 ].
Dexamethasone, which is a potent synthetic glucocorticoid with
different respiratory tract infections including common cold and flu, or chronic due to smoking and asthma. Cough is generally treated with some drug combinations [ 4 ]. Levocloperastine fendizoate, dextromethorphan hydrobromide and dexamethasone alone or in