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virulence factors, diagnostic techniques including non-invasive and invasive diagnostics and treatment. Virulence Factors in Digestive and Extra-digestive Pathogenic Strains of H. pylori Adhesion is the most important factor for

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A noncompacted cardiomyopathia a myocardium fejlődésének egy sajátos morfológiai rendellenessége, amely csecsemő- és gyermekkorban igen ritkán kerül felismerésre. Elnevezésüket illetően korábban többféle, leggyakrabban spongiosus megjelölést használtak, az embrionális cardiomyopathia azonban jól kifejezi a betegség embriópatológiai eredetét. A prevalencia nem ismert, és hosszú távú irodalmi nyomon követési adatok sem állnak rendelkezésre. Célunk a jelentős számúnak tekinthető, 20 év alatt 23 betegben echokardiográfiával diagnosztizált betegekben történt vizsgálatok adatait értékelni. (Életkor: 3 nap–17 év, átlag: 60,3 hó, 11 beteg volt 1 éves életkor alatti.) Nyomon követési idő 0,5–16 év, átlag 6,3 év volt. A hagyományos echokardiográfiás szisztolés-diasztolés funkció paraméterei mellett szöveti Doppler- és a gyermekekben hazánkban ezen betegekben először végzett MR-vizsgálatokat értékeltük. Eredmények: Az echo/MR vizsgálatok jól korreláltak a diagnózis megállapításában és a szisztolés funkció paramétereiben. Kiemeljük a kombinált szisztolés és diasztolés funkció paraméter (TEI-index) szerepét (TEI-index MRI-EF-korreláció r: 0,96, p<0,01). Csecsemőkorban felismert betegek társult vitiummal, de a nélkül is, igen súlyos prognózisúak: a betegek 43%-a fél éven belül meghalt vagy szívátültetésre került. A nagyobb gyermekek hosszabb ideig vannak stabil hemodinamikai állapotban. A korai diagnózis, adekvát kezelés, vitiummal társult betegekben a műtét előtti felismerés javíthat a betegség prognózisán, a műtét kilátásain. Adataink várhatóan hozzájárulnak a hazai prevalencia megismeréséhez, illetve a családvizsgálatok elindításához is.

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The increased use of enriched stable isotopes in Russian Federation resulting from the demand of medical diagnostic techniques, fundamental physical research, and the development of new materials is considered. The most perspective technology for producing wide spectrum isotopes of middle and heavy masses seems to be the gas centrifuge.

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Positron emission tomography (PET) is a very powerful diagnostic technique routinely used in a variety of medical applications. This review article summarises the developments of using microreactor technology for the radiochemical synthesis of PETagents. The advantages of manufacturing these imaging drugs using microreactors are described, and a review of reactions conducted to date is outlined.

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Shortly after the radioactive radium was discovered, it made people to try using radioaction of Ra in medical therapy of human's diseases(1). But in the past 60 years, the most interests were concentrated in clinical diagnostic techniques of nuclides. Up to date, nuclear and non-nuclear diagnostic techniques of the tumor are quite advanced, the therapeutic application of90Y,226Ra,198Au and32P nuclides have lasted for long time, several decades later, the studies of tumor interventional radiotherapeutic agents are being interested again and made a very great progresses with the development of nuclear instruments. In our institute, we are developing some very important radiotherapeutic agents in vivo for the treatment of bone metastases, hepatic cancer, brain tumor, rheumatic arthritis radioactive synovectomy, pheochromacytoma, neuroblastoma and so on.

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There have been many new imaging techniques being developed for the assessment of the various organs and their diseases. In the near future, magnetic resource imaging (MRI) will become one of the most important modalities in the evaluation of the disease processes, while computer tomography (CT), nuclear medicine, ultrasonography and other diagnostic techniques may become complementary to MRI. In any event the new techniques under development will be refined to non-invasive, less costly, easy to perform methods with higher diagnostic accuracy. In the next 10 years, these new modalities will be used more widely in clinical imaging.

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Neutron activation analysis is shown as a useful diagnostic technique in semiconductor industry. A better acceptance of the method for applications in industry has been achieved through a specialized analytical service. Its main application is the characterization of high purity silicon in all stages of production. Irradiation of large sample volumes allowes a very sensitive detection of impurities in silicon with detection limits down to 10–16 g/g. Other applications discussed are the analysis of silicon carbide, quartz, pure water and titanium. Special techniques described are autoradiography, depth profiling and surface analysis. In semiconductor process technology NAA was used to monitor contamination of silicon wafers.

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The aim of this study is to characterize the microstructure and high temperature induced structural changes within fiber reinforced silicon carbide (SiCf/SiC) composites by means of non-destructive techniques. In order to understand their properties, the characterization of the microstructure of SiCf/SiC composites is the crucial issue. Porosity within composites is unavoidable with currently available manufacturing processes, and reduces significantly the life time and performance of the composites under harsh environments. Moreover, the internal pores, created in the manufacturing process cause the degradation most of the outstanding properties such as thermal conductivity, mechanical properties at high temperature, and radiation stability. Cold neutron tomography and diffusion structural diagnostic techniques were applied in the investigation of the microstructure of SiCf/SiC composites to gain complementary information. One of the main obstacles to using these composites in fusion technology and other applications are a change of the porous structure and a swelling at high temperatures and in a severe radiation environment. Cold neutron tomography enables visualization of the microstructure of the composite and consequently the pore distributions within the SiCf/SiC composite were observed with a suitable resolution. The diffusion structural diagnostic technique was used to characterize the thermal behavior of SiCf/SiC composites on heating up to 1300 °C.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Stefania Zanetti, Alessandra Bua, Paola Molicotti, Giovanni Delogu, Antonio Mura, Silvia Ortu and Leonardo Sechi

During a six-month period a region of Northern Sardinia was monitored to check the presence of mycobacterial infections in wild boars. Forty-eight serum and 229 biopsy samples were collected from different animals and examined by both traditional diagnostic techniques (culture, bacterioscopic and molecular tests) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The latter was used to determine the antibody response against both methylated and nonmethylated Heparin-Binding Haemagglutinin (HBHA) protein. Nine mycobacterial strains were isolated: three M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Map), three M. avium , one M. interjectum and two M. scrofulaceum strains. By PCR, only one animal was positive for M. bovis , whereas 10 animals were positive for Map. Out of the 48 sera tested, 19 showed a good humoral response to methylated HBHA and 17 to nonmethylated HBHA. Our data provide new information on the prevalence of mycobacterial infection among wild boars in Northern Sardinia and suggest that a more effective program should be developed to monitor mycobacterial infections in the wild animal population.

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Among a wide range of cytokines, the Interleukin 12 (IL-12) family has its unique structural, functional, and immunological characteristics that have made this family as important immunological playmakers. Because of the importance of IL-12 heterodimeric cytokines in microbial infections, autoimmune diseases, and cancers, the authors of this literature discuss about the general characteristics of IL-12 family members, the interactions between IL-12 cytokines and pathogenic microorganisms, the interleukins receptors and their strategies for selecting different signalling pathways. IL-12 and IL-23 are similar in p40 subunits and both are involved in proinflammatory responses while, IL-27 and IL-35 contribute to anti-inflammatory activities; however, IL-27 is also involved in pro-inflammatory responses. There are some similarities and dissimilarities among IL-12 family members which make them a unique bridge between innate and adaptive immune systems. The bioactivities of IL-12 family indicate a brilliant promise for their applications in different fields of medicine. The members of IL-12 family are candidate for several therapeutics including gene therapy, cancer therapy, tumour therapy, and vaccination. To have an accurate diagnostic technique and definite treatment regarding to infectious diseases, the playmakers of IL-12 family as effective criteria together with microarray technology are the best choices for current and future applications.

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