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In a model experiment, Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were fed on a cornsilage-based diet supplemented with 11.75 MJ NE l per day of calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (CAS) or hydrogenated triglyceride (HTG) or without fat supplementation (control). All diets were fed to the cows over a period from 21 ± 3 days (d) prior to the expected calving to d 100 ± 5 postpartum. On d 25 (basal sample) and d 14 prepartum as well as on d 5 and 25 postpartum liver samples were collected by percutaneous biopsy. Total lipid content, fatty acid composition and glycogen of liver tissues were determined. At d 5 postpartum, both control and CAS cows had higher liver lipid (P < 0.05) and lower glycogen (P < 0.05) concentrations than cows in the HTG group. No significant (P < 0.05) differences were detected in liver fat content among the groups at d 14 prepartum or d 25 postpartum. The glycogen concentration slightly decreased in the liver of cows in each treatment group from d 14 prepartum to d 5 postpartum; however, this decrease was more intensive in both the control and CAS groups than in the HTG group. The variations in liver lipid concentrations were accompanied by significant changes in the proportion of C16:0, C16:1n-7, C18:0, C18:1n-9, C18:2n-6 and C20:4n-6 fatty acids in the liver lipids. The results show that HTG supplementation exerted more advantageous effects on liver lipid and glycogen metabolism than did CAS supplementation.

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Lipids are used to provide the energy to cover the metabolic needs and to provide essential fatty acids, which are important for membrane function [12]. Fats may contain high level of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are prone to peroxidation [8] and will interact with the antioxidant defense system [1]. There is contradiction in the literature about whether the intake of fish oil enhance [7] or deplete [4] tissue antioxidant defenses and the glutathione redox system in different organisms. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of different dietary oils on parameters of the lipid peroxide state and the glutathione redox system in C. gariepinus fingerlings.

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Healthy eating, chiefly the quantity and quality of dietary fats and oils, takes a prominent part in promoting the optimal health status and in preventing the development of chronic disorders, mainly cardiovascular diseases. In Hungary the consumption of lard (the characteristic fat in the Hungarian diet) has fallen by 30% since 1980, and that of edible oil (above all sunflower oil) has been almost triplicated since 1970. The total fat consumption remained unchanged. From the eighties and nineties the mortality of cerebrovascular diseases, atherosclerosis and acute myocardial infarction significantly decreased, that of hypertension remained unchanged. Although cardiovascular diseases have a number of aetiological factors, the change of dietary fats and oils may play a role in the improvement of mortality data.

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Nutrigenomics examines nutrient-gene interactions on a genome-wide scale. Increased dietary fat or higher non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) from starvation-induced mobilisation may enhance hepatic oxidation and decrease esterification of fatty acids by reducing the expression of the fatty acid synthase gene. The key factors are the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Dietary carbohydrates — both independently and through insulin effect — influence the transcription of the fatty acid synthase gene. Oleic acid or n-3 fatty acids down-regulate the expression of leptin, fatty acid synthase and lipoprotein lipase in retroperitoneal adipose tissue. Protein-rich diets entail a shortage of mRNA necessary for expression of the fatty acid synthase gene in the adipocytes. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are activators of PPAR and also induce apoptosis in adipocytes. Altered rumen microflora produces CLAs that are efficient inhibitors of milk fat synthesis in the mammary gland (‘biohydrogenation theory’). Oral zinc or cadmium application enhances transcription rate in the metallothionein gene. Supplemental CLA in pig diets was found to decrease feed intake and body fat by activating PPARγ-responsive genes in the adipose tissue. To prevent obesity and type II diabetes, the direct modulation of gene expression by nutrients is also possible. Nutrigenomics may help in the early diagnosis of genetically determined metabolic disorders and in designing individualised diets for companion animals.

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A feeding experiment was conducted on northern pike, Esox lucius L. (123.6±33.3 g initial body weight) applying graded dietary fish oil supplementation resulting three dietary fat levels (without supplementation: 6.2% fat and 11.7, 17.4% fat levels with supplementations) in a recirculation system. Feed consumption, feed efficiency and protein utilization of pike was not affected by the treatment. Whole body lipid content analysis showed that the composition of pike was significantly affected by the increasing level of fish oil supplementation, although no relationship was detected between the dietary and the fillet lipid content, as well as the protein content of fish bodies. High docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) proportions were found in the muscle lipids (groups fed fish oil supplementation), as compared to the dietary fatty acid compositions suggesting that with dietary fish oil supplementation the dietary precursors (mainly EPA) enable pike to convert long chain highly unsaturated fatty acids, especially DHA; resulting high DHA: EPA ratios in the fillet.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Tibor Gaál
,
L. Wágner
,
F. Husvéth
,
H. A. Manilla
,
P. Vajdovich
,
N. Balogh
,
I. Lóth
, and
Katalin Németh S.

The influence of fish oil (highly unsaturated) and beef tallow (highly saturated) with vitamin E (100 IU/kg) supplementation on the antioxidant status of broiler chicken cockerels was investigated. Chicks were fed a control diet with no added fat, 40 g/kg each of fish oil and beef tallow diets, respectively, from 11 to 42 days of age. Tocopherol concentration and the rate of lipid peroxidation, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in liver, fatty acid composition of the liver lipids, blood serum total antioxidant status (TAS), and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were determined. Vitamin E supplementation of the diet increased liver ?-tocopherol content in chicks regardless of the type of dietary fat. Fish oil diet resulted in higher liver TBARS value while beef tallow diet showed lower values compared to the control diet. Vitamin E supplementation reduced liver TBARS as well as serum GSH, and raised serum TAS for all diets. Serum GSH was the same for vitamin E supplemented diets regardless of the fat supplement. Fish oil diets resulted in a significant increase in hepatic lipid n-3 PUFA content. A significant positive correlation was found between liver TBARS and n-3 PUFA content. No relationships were established, however, between liver TBARS and n-6 PUFA or saturated fatty acids. The results suggest that feeding oils rich in n-3 PUFA increases tissue concentration of these fatty acids, consequently increasing tissue lipid peroxidation and reducing the antioxidative status of broiler chickens. Supplementing high levels of vitamin E with such oils may increase tissue oxidative stability. Serum TAS or GSH may be used as a measure of antioxidative status in chickens.

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Reports 2000 2 503 507 Willett, W. C.: Dietary fat and obesity: an unconvincing

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apolipoprotein E polymorphism on serum lipid response to the separate modification of dietary fat and dietary cholesterol. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 1998, 68 (6), 1215–1222. Weggemans, R. M., Zock, P. L., Ordovas, J. M., et al

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Katalin Csép
,
Márta Vitay
,
Gyöngyi Dudutz
,
László Rosivall
, and
László Korányi

., Perez-Jimenez, F., Gomez, P. és mtsai: The Ala54Thr polymorphism of the fatty acid-binding protein 2 gene is associated with a change in insulin sensitivity after a change in the type of dietary fat. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2005, 82 , 196

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors:
Martina Uvacsek
,
Zs. Kneffel
,
M. Tóth
,
A.W. Johnson
,
P. Vehrs
,
J.W. Myrer
, and
R. Hager

24 319 327 Neville MM, Geppert J, Min Y, Grimble G, Crawford MA, Ghebremeskel K: Dietary fat intake, body composition and blood lipids of university

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